Nakajima Ki-34 Army Type 97 Transport

Nakajima Ki-34 Army Type 97 Transport

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Nakajima Ki-34 Army Type 97 Transport

The Nakajima Ki-34 Army Type 97 Transport was a twin-engined light transport that was originally developed as a smaller version of the Douglas DC-2 for use on short range, low traffic civil airline routes.

In 1935, after purchasing a license to build the Douglas DC-2, Nakajima decided to design their own smaller transport aircraft. The task was given to Engineer Akegawa, and the aircraft was designated as the Nakajima Aerial Transport No.1 (AT-1).

Akegawa took inspiration from several existing aircraft. The biggest influence was the Douglas DC-2. Nakajima also gained valuable information on retractable undercarriages from a study of an imported Northrop 5D.

The overall layout of the aircraft was similar to the DC-2, with a flat sided fuselage, low-mounted wing and twin engines. As on the DC-2 the wings were flat in the centre section and had a slight dihedral on the outer panels. The Nakajima aircraft was significantly smaller than the DC-2 - it was nearly 12ft shorter and the wing span was 20ft smaller. Empty weight was nearly 5,000lb lighter and loaded weight 7,000lb lighter. Cruising speed was almost the same, but the normal range was 745 miles, down from 1,000 miles on the DC-2. The wings had a different plan - on the DC-2 the trailing edge and the inner section of the leading edge were both level while the leading edge of the outer wing panels tapered back towards the wing tip. On the Nakajima aircraft both the leading and trailing edges tapered equally along their entire length, with more taper on the leading edge.

The prototype was completed on 1936, by which time it had been redesignated as the Nakajima AT-2, Akegawa Transport No.2. It made its maiden flight on 12 September 1936. The new aircraft was stable and its performance was good. The only problems were fairly minor and the type was ordered by Dai Nippon Koku K.K. (Greater Japan Air Lines Co Ltd) and Manchurian Airlines. Thirty-two civil AT-2s were built between 1937 and 1940 and they remained in use until 1945.

The prototype was powered by two 580hp Nakajima Kotobuki 2-I radials with two-blade propellers, but civil production aircraft were given two 710hp Nakajima Kotobuki 41 engines.

In 1937 the Japanese Army decided to adopt the AT-2 as a paratroop transport and communication machine. The Army aircraft were powered by 710hp Nakajima Ha-1b engines with smooth NACA-type cowlings. They were given the designation Army Type 97 Transport or Ki-34.

Nakajima produced nineteen Ki-34s for the army between 1937 and 1940. Production then switched to Tachikawa Hikoki K.K., which built the bulk of the machines - 299 between 1938 and the end of production in 1942. Most of these aircraft were used by the Army but some did go to the Japanese Navy, where they became the Nakajima L1N1 Navy Type AT-2 Transport.

Engine: Two Nakajima Ha-1b nine-cylinder air cooled radials
Power: 710hp
Crew: 3 plus 8 passengers
Span: 65ft 0 1/8in
Length: 50ft 2 3/8in
Height: 13ft 7 3/8in
Empty weight: 7,716lb
Loaded weight: 11,574lb
Max speed: 224mph at 11,025ft
Cruising speed: 193mph
Climb Rate: 6min 18sec to 9,840ft
Service ceiling: 22,965ft
Range: 745 miles

Aviation of Word War II

Ki-34 Thora. Influenced by the success of the DC-2, the Ki-34 was a twin-engined, all-metal monoplane, with the project's chief engineer Akegawa. The prototype first flew on September 12, 1936.

Adopted by the army in 1937 under the name of a transport aircraft, army type 97. It entered service with the fleet under the name - marine transport aircraft, type AT-2, or L1N1.

AT-2, equipped with a pair of 9-cylinder Nakajima "Kotobuki" 2-Kai-1 engines with a power of 585 hp. with wooden two-bladed fixed pitch propellers. A characteristic feature of the AT-2 project was the reverse inclination of the frontal panels of the pilot's cockpit canopy. The spacious cabin accommodated 8-10 passengers and 200 kg of cargo.

The aircraft went into production with more powerful 3-Kai Kotobuki engines with a takeoff power of 620 hp. with metal double-bladed variable pitch propellers.

Production of Ki-34 aircraft at Nakajima did not last long and was phased out in 1939 after the release of 23 aircraft, including four prototypes. After that, Nakajima switched to the production of combat aircraft, and the rights to produce the Ki-34 transport aircraft were transferred to the Tachikawa company, which by the end of 1940 produced another 295 (according to other sources 288) copies, after which a similar capacity, but significantly more modern and .

Combat use. The unit's first combat operation was the deployment of three sabotage squads to the rear of Chinese troops in Changsha in October 1941. And on February 14, 1942, the 1st Teishin Sentai, which was based on Ki-34s, which were equipped with 3 of the five squadrons, were involved in the largest landing operation of the Japanese army - the capture of the city of Palembang in Sumatra. Thanks to the brilliant preparation of the operation, the Sentai materiel suffered practically no losses. Later, this operation formed the basis of propaganda films, after which the characteristic profile of the Ki-34 became well recognizable, despite the fact that by that time the aircraft was already considered obsolete and was discontinued. It was after the landing on Palembang that Ki-34 received the codename "Thora" from the allies.

Later, Ki-34 aircraft as part of the 1st Teishin Sentai took part in the drop of assault forces during the capture of the Philippines, in Burma. But the rapidly aging machine was less and less satisfied with the Japanese military, gradually giving way to more advanced, roomy and high-speed aircraft Mitsubishi Ki-57, Kawasaki Ki-56 and Tachikawa Ki-54.

Ki-34s were gradually withdrawn from the first line by the end of 1942. Some of them entered service with individual liaison squadrons of Yusô Hikô-Chûtaï, some were enrolled in flight schools, in particular in Ushonomiya, Gifu and Hamamatsu. Some of the machines were transferred to civil aviation, where they were operated even after the war. At least 12 Ki-34s were delivered to the Manchzhou Guo aviation, where they were used for their intended purpose precisely as transport aircraft until September 1945, when the surviving old men, along with earlier civilian AT-2s, were captured by Soviet troops in Harbin.

A number of Ki-34 aircraft were in service with Wang Zi Wei's allied Chinese collaborationist government. After the war, the surviving Ki-34s were also operated in China.

The fate of one of the L1N1 naval aircraft is curious. When, in May 1941, Japanese naval pilots mistakenly shot down a French transport aircraft Dewoitine 338 over the Gulf of Tonkin, as compensation, the fleet handed over to the French one of its aircraft, which turned out to be L1N1. The vehicle survived the war and was used by the French in Saigon back in 1947.

World War II Database

ww2dbase The Nakajima Aircraft Company had originally intended the AT-2 design to be a civilian transport, and indeed the first 32 examples built were operated by airliners Dai Nippon Koku KK and Manchukuo National Airways for routes between Tokyo, Japan and Xinjing, puppet state of Manchukuo Tokyo, Japan and Tianjin, occupied China and various airports within the puppet state of Manchukuo (these civilian airliners would remain in civilian service until the end of WW2). The demands of war soon led to a military variant of this transport aircraft, designated Ki-34 by Nakajima and Type 97 Transport by the Japanese Army. The first 19 military variants were built by Nakajima, but bulk of the production responsibility were then transferred to Tachikawa, which built a further 299 examples the Manshu Aircraft Company in Manchukuo also built a small number of examples. Production of Ki-34 aircraft ceased in 1942 after 351 examples were built, but they remained in service as transports, liaison aircraft, and paratrooper delivery aircraft until the end of the war. Later in the war, the Japanese Navy operated a small number of them the Japanese Navy designated them Type AT-2 Transport or L1N1 Transport.

ww2dbase The Allied code name for the Ki-34 design was "Thora".

ww2dbase Source: Wikipedia

Last Major Revision: Jul 2012

12 Sep 1936 The AT-2/Ki-34 aircraft took its first flight.


MachineryTwo Nakajima Kotobuki 2-1 9-cyl air-cooled radial engines rated at 710hp each
ArmamentNone capacity for 8 passengers
Span19.81 m
Length15.30 m
Height4.15 m
Wing Area49.20 m²
Weight, Empty3,500 kg
Weight, Loaded5,250 kg
Speed, Maximum360 km/h
Speed, Cruising310 km/h
Service Ceiling7,000 m
Range, Normal1,200 km

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Тема закреплена. Скорее всего, здесь есть важная информация.

Infantry Unit list - (Not done yet)

Logistics Unit List - (Work in progress)

Tanks Unit List - (Work in progress)

Artillery Unit List - (Work in progress)

Naval Unit List - (Work in progress)

Aircraft Unit List- (Work in progress)

Light Cruisers
Heavy Cruisers

Akitsu Maru-class
Shimane Maru-class
Yamashio Maru-class
Kumano Maru-class

Type 98 50 mm Mortar
Type 11 70 mm Infantry Mortar
Type 97 81 mm Infantry Mortar
Type 99 81 mm mortar
Type 94 90 mm Infantry Mortar
Type 97 90 mm Infantry Mortar
Type 2 12 cm Mortar
Type 90 light mortar
Type 96 150 mm Infantry Mortar
Type 97 150 mm Infantry Mortar

Type 11 37 mm Infantry Gun
Type 92 70 mm Infantry Gun

7cm Mountain Gun
Type 31 75 mm Mountain Gun
7 cm Field Gun
Type 31 75 mm Field gun
Type 41 75 mm Mountain Gun
Type 94 75 mm Mountain Gun
Type 38 75 mm Field Gun
Type 41 75 mm Cavalry Gun
Type 90 75 mm Field Gun
Type 95 75 mm Field Gun
Type 99 10 cm Mountain gun
Krupp 10.5 cm Cannon
Type 38 10 cm Cannon
Type 91 10 cm Howitzer
Type 14 10 cm Cannon
Type 92 10 cm Cannon
120 mm Krupp howitzer M1905
Type 38 12 cm Howitzer
Type 38 15 cm Howitzer
Type 4 15 cm Howitzer
Type 96 15 cm Howitzer

Type Ra 37 mm AT Gun - - (German Built)
Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun
Type 1 37 mm Anti-Tank Gun -
Type 97 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun - 1937
Type 1 47 mm Anti-Tank Gun
Type 2 57 mm Anti-Tank Gun -

Type 7 10 cm Cannon
Type 45 15 cm Cannon - 1912 - coastal defense gun
Type 7 15 cm Cannon
Type 89 15 cm Cannon
Type 96 15cm Cannon
28cm Howitzer (1887)
Type 45 24 cm Howitzer (1912)
Type 96 24 cm Howitzer

Type 90 24 cm Railway Gun - - (French Built)
Type 7 30 cm Howitzer (1918)
Experimental 41 cm Howitzer

15cm Mortar
Type 14 27 cm Heavy Mortar
Type 98 320 mm mortar
Type 4 20 cm Rocket Launcher
Type 4 40 cm Rocket Launcher
Type 5 Mortar Launcher "Tok"

Type 3 Heavy Machine Gun
Type 4 Heavy Machine Gun
13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine gun
Type 92 13mm automotive cannon
Type 98 20 mm AA Machine Cannon
20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier Truck
20 mm Anti-Aircraft Tank "Ta-Se"
Type 4 20 mm Twin AA Machine Cannon
Type 2 20 mm AA Machine Cannon
Type 98 20 mm AA Half-Track Vehicle
Type 2 20 mm Twin AA Machine Cannon
Type 98 20 mm AAG Tank
Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Gun
Vickers Type 40 mm AT/AA Gun
70/81mm AA Mine Discharger

Medium anti aircraft guns

Type 11 - - railway gun and in home guard fortresses
Type 14
Type 10
Type 88
Type 99
QF 3.7-inch AA gun - - (UK Built)

Type 89 naval gun
Type 3 12cm
Type 4 - - (Chinese Built)
Type 5

Renault NC27 "Otsu" Light Tank (Char D1) - - (French Built)
M3 Light Tank - - (USA Built)
Type 93 Light Tank
Type 95 Ha-Go - 1935
Type 98 Ke-Ni - 1938
Type 2 Ke-To
Type 4 Ke-Nu
Type 5 Ke-Ho - - (Prototype)

Type 87 Chi-I (Experimental 1st tank) – 1918
Type 97 Chi-Ha – 1936
Type 2 Ho-I Infantry Support Tank -
Type 89 Chi-Ro - 1939
Type 3 Chi-Nu – 1944
Type 1 Chi-He, - 1942
Type 4 Chi-To – 1944
Type 5 Chi-Ri - 1945 - - (Prototype)
British Medium A "Whippet" - - (UK Built)
Type 89 Medium Yi-Go
Type 94 Medium Tank

British Mk IV - - (UK Built)
Type 91 Heavy Tank - - (Prototype)
Type 95 Heavy Tank - - (Prototype)
Jiro-Sha SPG
Type 2 Ka-To SPG

O-I (1944), 120-ton tank - - (Prototype)

Type 94 Armored Train -
Improvised Armored Train -
Locomotives Type 97/98/100 -

Type 92 A-I-Go (experimental, modified hull of Type 92 Heavy Armoured Car) -
SR-II (experimental) -
Type 1 Mi-Sha - - (Prototype)
Type 2 Ka-Mi -
Type 4 Ka-Tsu - - (submarine-launched resupply)
Type 4 Ka-Sha -
Type 5 To-Ku -

Personnel Landing Craft "Shohatsu" -
Personnel Landing Craft "Chuhatsu" -
Vehicle Landing Craft "Daihatsu" -
Vehicle Landing Craft "Toku-Daihatsu" -
Vehicle Landing Craft "Mokusei-Daihatsu" -

Kawanishi E7K Navy Type 94 Seaplane
Nakajima E8N Navy Type 95 Seaplane Model 1
Watanabe E9W Navy Type 96 Small Seaplane
Kawanishi H6K Type 97 Large Flying Boat
Mitsubishi F1M Type 0 Observation Seaplane
Yokosuka E14Y Type 0 Small Seaplane
Aichi E13A Navy Type 0 Seaplane
Kawanishi E15K Shiun Navy Type 2 High-speed Seaplane
Kawanishi H8K Type 2 Large Flying Boat
Aichi E16A Zuiun Navy Seaplane

Kawasaki Ki-10 Army Type 95 Fighter
Mitsubishi Ki-46 Type 100 Command Aircraft
Nakajima J1N Gekkou Navy Type 2 Plane
Nakajima C6N Saiun Navy Carrier Plane

Kawasaki Ki-56 Army Type 1 Freight Transport & Tachikawa Navy Type LO
Mitsubishi Ki-57 Army Type 100 Transport
Nakajima Ki-34 Army Type 97 Transport & Nakajima L1N Navy Type AT-2 Transport
Showa/Nakajima L2D Navy Type 0 Transport

Kawasaki Ki-10 Army Type 95 Fighter
Mitsubishi A5M Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter
Nakajima Ki-27 Army Type 97 Fighter
Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa Army Type 1 Fighter
Mitsubishi A6M Zero-Sen Navy Type Zero Carrier Fighter
Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu Army Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter
Mitsubishi Ki-46-III-Kai Army Type 100 Air Defence Fighter
Nakajima A6M2-N Navy Type 2 Interceptor/Fighter-Bomber
Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko
Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki Army Type 2 Single-Seat Fighter
Kawanishi N1K Kyofu Navy Fighter Seaplane
Mitsubishi J2M Raiden Navy Interceptor Fighter
Kawanishi N1K1-J/N1K2-J Shiden Navy Land-Based Interceptor
Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien Army Type 3 Fighter
Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate Army Type 4 Fighter
Kawasaki Ki-102 Army Type 4 Assault Aircraft
Kawasaki Ki-100 Goshikisen Army Type 5 Fighter

Yokosuka B4Y Navy Type 96 Carrier Attacker
Mitsubishi B5M Navy Type 97 No.2 Carrier Attack Bomber
Nakajima B5N Navy Type 97 Carrier Attack Bomber
Tachikawa Ki-36 Army Type 98 Direct Co-operation Aircraft
Mitsubishi Ki-51 Army Type 99 Assault Plane
Aichi D3A Navy Type 99 Carrier Bomber
Nakajima B6N Tenzan Navy Carrier Torpedo Bomber
Aichi B7A Ryusei Navy carrier torpedo bomber
Yokosuka D4Y Suisei Navy Carrier Dive bomber
Aichi M6A1 Seiran Navy Special Strike Submarine Bomber
Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka

Yokosuka P1Y1 Ginga Navy Bomber
Mitsubishi G3M Navy Type 96 Attack Aircraft
Mitsubishi G4M Navy Type 1 Attack Aircraft

Kawasaki Ki-48 Army Type 99 Twin-engined Bomber
Mitsubishi Ki-30 Army Type 97 bomber

Mitsubishi Ki-21 Army Type 97 Bomber
Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu Army Type 100 Bomber
Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu Navy Type 4 Bomber


* Even as the Ki-27 was entering service, the IJA was pursuing an improved successor. Having been impressed by the Ki-27, the IJA did not conduct a competition, simply issuing a specification to Nakajima in December 1937 to initiate development. The specification was ambitious, calling for a maximum speed of 500 KPH (310 MPH), a range of 800 kilometers (500 miles), and agility comparable to or better than that of the Ki-27.

The design effort was under the direction of Itokawa Hideo, who would later become famous as a pioneer of Japanese rocketry. The initial prototype of the "Ki-43" performed its first flight in January 1939, with a second prototype following in February, and a third in March. Test pilot feedback was negative, the aircraft being described as less maneuverable than the Ki-27, and not much faster.

Nakajima engineers responded with ten evaluation machines featuring successive improvements -- such as a weight trim, a slimmer fuselage with the tail assembly moved back, and a new canopy. The last of them introduced maneuvering "butterfly" flaps that provided the type with enhanced agility. With these changes, the Ki-43 was ordered into production as the "Army Type 1 Fighter". It was given the name "Hayabusa (Peregrine Falcon)".

The initial production version was the "Ki-43-I Ko", which was delivered from mid-1941, with the Hayabusa quickly becoming the standard IJA fighter. The aircraft was fast, maneuverable, and had a high rate of climb. It was powered by a Nakajima Ha-25 Sakae 14-cylinder two-row air-cooled radial engine with 710 kW (950 HP), driving a two-bladed prop -- originally a fixed-pitch wooden propeller, quickly changed to a variable-pitch metal propeller.

Baseline armament was the traditional twin 7.7-millimeter Type 89 machine guns, fitted in front of the canopy, with distinctive flash suppressors. They were aimed with a telescopic sight. The Hayabusa featured taildragger landing gear, all gear assemblies having single wheels, the main gear pivoting in the inner wings to retract towards the fuselage -- there were no doors on the mainwheels -- and the tailwheel being fixed.

With the outbreak of war in the Pacific, the Ki-43 came as a nasty shock to the Allies, having generally better performance than the Allied fighter aircraft and extreme agility, with IJA pilots greatly enjoying its excellent handling. The Allies nicknamed it the "Army Zero", the Ki-43 being comparable in most respects to the IJN's Mitsubishi Zero fighter. However, combat experience showed the Ki-43 suffered from the same deficiencies as the Ki-27: it lacked and self-sealing fuel tanks, and the armament was too light -- The Ki-43 differing significantly from the Zero in being under-gunned. As a result, the Ki-43-I was followed by improved subvariants:

    Ki-43-I Otsu: Armament changed to a single 12.7-millimeter (0.50 caliber) Ho-103 machine gun -- a derivative of the US Browning M2 -- along with a single 7.7-millimeter Type 89.

Five Ki-43-I machines were modified as prototypes for the improved "Ki-43-II" first flying flew in early 1942, with three pre-production machines following, and production of the "Ki-43-II Ko" beginning at the company's factory at Ota in the fall of 1942. Changes included:

    A Nakajima Ha-115 Ko radial engine -- an Ha-25 Sakae with a two-speed supercharger, providing 855 kW (1,150 HP) -- in a longer cowling and driving a three-bladed variable-pitch propeller.

Only a few Ki-43-II Ko machines were built, production moving on to the "Ki-43-II Otsu" -- much the same as the Ki-43-II Ko, the most significant changes being modifications in the engine installation.

Production lines for the Ki-43 were also established at the Tachikawa Aircraft Company, and the 1st Army Air Arsenal in Tachikawa. The 1st Army Air Arsenal, lacking adequate staff, only completed 49 Ki-43s before being forced to halt production.

Following the Ki-43-II Otsu, Nakajima went on to gather up various changes in production into the "Ki-43-II KAI", which featured bomb racks moved outboard on the wings, to prevent bombs from hitting the prop in dive-bombing attacks oil cooler moved to the center fuselage individual instead of grouped exhausts, providing a bit of additional thrust and minor alterations to the airframe to improve manufacturability.

Tachikawa went on to produce the "Ki-43-III-Ko", designed by Nakajima engineers, with Nakajima building ten prototypes. It was fitted with the uprated Nakajima Ha-115 Otsu engine with 920 kW (1,230 HP), the Ki-43-III entering service in mid-1943. Nakajima ended production of the Ki-43 in 1944, focusing on the much more formidable Ki-84 Hayate. Tachikawa continued to turn it out to the end of the conflict.

Tachikawa worked on a interceptor variant, the "Ki-43-III Otsu", powered by a Mitsubishi Kinsei Ha-112 14-cylinder two-row air-cooled radial engine with 970 kW (1,300 HP) -- plus armament of twin 20-millimeter Ho-5 cannon, which was more or less an up-gunned Browning M2. Two prototypes were built, which were still in test when the fighting stopped.

Total Ki-43 production amounted to 5,919 aircraft, including 3,239 by Nakajima, 2,631 by Tachikawa, and 49 by the Tachkawa Arsenal. It served on all fronts involving the IJA. The top-scoring Hayabusa pilot was Sergeant Anabuki Satoshi with 39 confirmed victories, almost all scored with the Ki-43. Many Ki-43s were used during the last months of the war for kamikaze missions against the American fleet.

During the war, some Ki-43s were supplied to Japanese-backed regimes of Thailand, Manchukuo, and the Chinese collaborationist government of Wang Jingwei as well. After the conflict, the French used captured Ki-43s in limited numbers against Viet Minh insurgents, while the Indonesian liberation government used abandoned Ki-43s against the Dutch colonialists.

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Nakajima Ki-34 Army Type 97 Transport - History

Each federation has evolved its own set, but some common features are:

This design was approved by the Koku Hombu, and the aircraft was designated Ki-94-II (the scrapped earlier Ki-94 design was named the Ki-94-I). An order was placed for one static test airframe, three prototypes, and eighteen pre-production aircraft. Only 2 prototypes were built in the event the first was equipped with a single 1,895 kW Nakajima Ha219 [Ha-44] engine, driving a 4-blade propeller because the 6-blade one was not ready. The second prototype was to be fitted with a 6-blade propeller. The war's end however stopped the construction of the second prototype and also found the first prototype still being readied for its maiden flight, the Ki-94-II never taking to the air.

The second Ki-94 design, made by a team under Tatsuo Hasegawa, chief designer of the aircraft and responsible for the used airfoil, was a more conventional single-seat, piston-engine monoplane fighter, developed for the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force along the same requirements as the Nakajima Ki-87, which had been the Army's fall-back design for the original Ki-94. Intended to counter B-29 raids, it was optimized for high-altitude interception with a pressurized cockpit and heavy armament.

The Hiko Sentai, usually referred to as Sentai, was the basic operational unit of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, composed of three or more Chutai (companies or squadrons). A Sentai had 27 to 49 aircraft, with each Chutai having 16 aircraft and pilots plus a maintenance and repair unit. Several sentai had other units under their operational control, most notably the Hagakure-Tai ("Special Attack Units") of the 244th Sentai. By 1944, with the depredations of Allied attacks on supply lines and airfields, as well as the loss of pilots and aircraft through combat attrition and accidents, few sentai were able to operate at full strength.

The first was a twin-boom monoplane with two 1,641 kW Mitsubishi Ha211 18-cylinder engines, driving two 4-blade propellers in a push-pull configuration. The very heavy armament that should have been mounted on the aircraft (two 37 mm/1.46 in and two 30 mm/1.18 in cannon, should have been enough to make short work of most US heavy bombers of the era. Notwithstanding the outstanding prospective performance, which however was judged as "unduly optimistic" by the technical department of the Japanese Army Air Force, this design was judged too complex by the technical department and the design was discarded.

The Ki-67 protein was originally defined by the prototype monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which was generated by immunizing mice with nuclei of the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L428. The name is derived from the city of origin (Kiel, Germany) and the number of the original clone in the 96-well plate.

The units assigned to the 10th Hiko Shidan included the 244th Hiko Sentai (Fighter group), then commanded by Captain Takashi Fujita, who organised a ramming flight called "Hagakure-Tai" ("Special Attack Unit"), which was composed out of volunteers from the three Chutai (squadrons) of the 244th: the 1st Chutai "Soyokaze", 2nd Chutai "Toppu", and the 3rd Chutai known as "Mikazuki".

The color red dominates the Devnarayan Ki Par. Reading of the Par is started from the central figure of Shri Devnarayan. For the purpose of reading, the Par can be divided in three pars. Part A extends from the left to the central figure of Lord Devnarayan. Part B begins with the figure of Devnarayan and ends with the fourth-largest figure, Devnarayan's cousin Bhangi Ji. The rest is part C. The Par reading is initiated with prayers or aarati of Lord Devnarayan and other gods such as Ganesha.

On 29 January, seven Kawasaki Ki-48 of the Army's Shichisi Mitate Tokubetsu Kōgeki Tai counter-attacked the Allied fleet at low level as the British aircraft were returning from Palembang. The British radar picture was confused by the presence of over 100 friendly aircraft and the first two or three Supermarine Seafire CAP interceptions did not occur until just before the Ki-48 formation entered the air defence zone. The last pair of Seafires chased the five remaining Ki-48s inside the screen, and with the support of returning Vought F4U Corsairs and Grumman F6F Hellcats which had just been scrambled, shot down all of them, amongst intense AA fire. One Seafire was slightly damaged and one Hellcat was written off by friendly fire, but the only ship to be damaged was the carrier, hit by heavy AA shells. Such success, minor by Pacific fighting standards at the time, gave the British Pacific Fleet useful expertise and confidence in its ability to deal with kamikaze attacks.

On 7 November 1944, the officer commanding the 10th Hiko Shidan (Air division) made ramming attacks a matter of policy by forming ramming attack flights specifically to oppose the B-29s at high altitude. The aircraft were stripped of their fuselage armament and protective systems in order to attain the required altitudes. Although the term "kamikaze" is often used to refer to the pilots undertaking these attacks, the word was not used by the Japanese military.

Some other Ki-61 pilots also achieved renown, among them Major Teruhiko Kobayashi of the 244th Sentai, who was credited by some with a dozen victories mostly due to conventional attacks against B-29s.

First Lieutenant Toru Shinomiya was selected to lead the Hagakure-Tai. On 3 December 1944, Shinomiya – along with Sergeant Masao Itagaki and Sergeant Matsumi Nakano – intercepted a B-29 raid Shinomaya rammed one B-29, but was able to land his damaged Ki-61, which had lost most of the port outer wing, back at base. After attacking another B-29 Itagaki had to parachute from his damaged fighter, while Nakano rammed and damaged Long Distance of the 498th BG and crash-landed his stripped-down Ki-61 in a field. Shinomaya's damaged Ki-61 was later displayed inside Tokyo's Matsuya department store while Nakano's Ki-61 was displayed outside, alongside of a life-size cut-away drawing of the forward fuselage of a B-29. These three pilots were the first recipients of the Bukosho, Japan's equivalent to the Victoria Cross or Medal of Honor, which had been inaugurated on 7 December 1944 as an Imperial Edict by Emperor Hirohito (there are 89 known recipients, most of whom fought and scored against B-29s). The existence of the ramming unit had been kept confidential until then, but it was officially disclosed in the combat results announcement and officially named "Shinten Seiku Tai" ("Body Attack Detachment") by the Defense GHQ. On 27 January 1945, Itakagi survived another ramming attack on a B-29, again parachuting to safety, and received a second Bukosho he survived the war as only one of two known double-Bukosho recipients. Sergeant Shigeru Kuroishikawa was another distinguished member of the unit. Despite their successful attacks, these pilots gained no reprieve, and were obliged to continue these deadly and dangerous ramming tactics until they were killed, or else wounded so badly that they could no longer fly. They were regarded as doomed men and were celebrated among the ranks of those who were going to certain death as Tokkotai (kamikaze) pilots.

The British Pacific Fleet departed from Ceylon on 16 January 1945 en route to Australia, and struck Japanese-held oil wells and refineries at Palembang, Sumatra on 24–29 January 1945 in Operation Meridian.

The tactic of using aircraft to ram American Boeing B-29 Superfortresses was first recorded in late August 1944, when B-29s from Chinese airfields attempted to bomb the steel factories at Yawata. Sergeant Shigeo Nobe of the 4th Sentai intentionally flew his Kawasaki Ki-45 into a B-29 debris from the explosion severely damaged another B-29, which also went down. Other attacks of this nature followed, as a result of which individual pilots determined it was a practicable way of destroying B-29s.

The figure of Lord Devnarayan is the largest in the Par. The central and largest figure of Lord Devnarayan is shown seated on Basag Nag (king of snakes) and the side view of Deoji has a sharp nose and prominent golden ornament. From the ear hangs a large golden ornament which most of the Gurjars still wear in Rajasthan. In one hand, there is a flower, while in the other, the Khanda (a sword).

With a high demand for increased military transport capability after the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army adapted the AT-2 design for military use by fitting with more powerful Nakajima Ha-1b radial engines and re-designating the aircraft as the Army Type 97 Transport and Ki-34. The initial 19 aircraft were produced by Nakajima Aircraft, and another 299 aircraft were subsequently produced by the Army-affiliated Tachikawa Hikoki K.K.. The final airframe was delivered in 1942.

In operational service, the Ki-34 was used as a utility aircraft for liaison and communications duties, and for paratrooper training and Special Forces operations.

At a later date, some aircraft were transferred to the Imperial Japanese Navy, where they were known as the Navy Type AT-2 Transport or Nakajima L1N1. Several were also transferred to the air force of the Japanese puppet state of China-Nanjing in 1942.

Kijev Do (municipality Ravno),

Ki is used to mark negation in sentences that utilise the past tense, meaning that it is used for events that have already occurred. An example is (Siegel, 1984, p. 111-112):


The first prototype of the Type 90-2 Reconnaissance Seaplane, or E4N1, flew in 1930. This was fitted with twin floats and had no cowling for the engine. This prototype was rejected.

The type was completely redesigned as the Type 90-2-2 or E4N2, with a single main-float and twin, wing-mounted outriggers and introduced a cowled engine. This entered production for the Navy in 1931.

A landplane version of the Type 90-2-2 was developed as the E4N2-C with a tailwheel undercarriage

Nakadžima Ki 34 [Thora]

V březnu 1934 získala společnost 中島飛行機株式会社 - Nakajima Hikōki Kabushiki Kaisha za 80 000 dolarů licenční práva na výrobu dopravních DC-2. V prosinci téhož roku přišel jeden kus DC-2 a tak v roce 1935 mohla začít vlastní výroba. První letoun byl sestaven z částí dodaných z USA a následně byl zalétán v únoru 1936, ještě s americkými motory Wright Cyclone SGR-1820-F2 o výkonu 730 koní.

První letouny japonské výroby používala společnost Dai Kippon Koku K. K. Stavbou této civilní verze bylo umožněno japonským konstruktérům, aby se seznámili s touto moderní konstrukcí. Japonským dílem byla konstrukce dopravního letadla AT-2 pro jehož pohon byly použity dva japonské motory Nakajima Kotobuki 2-1, byly to vzduchem chlazené hvězdicové devítiválce s výkonem 580 koní. Prototyp byl zalétán 12. 09. 1936 a měl vcelku uspokojivé letové vlastnosti. V letech 1937-1940 vzniklo 32 civilních letadel AT-2 s výkonnějšími motory Nakajima Kotobuki 42 o výkonu 710 koní, používaly je japonské letecké společnosti Dai Nippon a Manchurian Airlines až konce druhé světové války.

V roce 1937 projevilo o AT-2 zájem také císařské armádní letectvo, které je zařadilo do své výzbroje jako rychlé dopravní letadlo pro výsadkové skupiny. Do výzbroje byly přijaty pod označením Ki-34. Motory zůstaly stejné, ale pro armádu označené jako Ha-1b. Společnost Nakajima byla však přetížena velkými vojenskými zakázkami a tak byla sériová výroba převedena do společnosti 立川飛行機株式会社 - Tachikawa Hikōki Kabushiki Kaisha.

Námořní letectvo převzalo několik desítek těchto dopravních letadel pod označním L1N1. Výroba byla ukončena v roce 1942.
Ve spojeneckém kódu byl tento letoun znám znám pod jménem Thora.
DC-2, které byly vyrobené v Japonsku, nesly kódové jméno Tess.

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