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Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 2007 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 2007 - History


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Major Event/ Sports /Nobel Prizes/Pulitzer Prizes/Academy/ Popular Movies/ Popular Books /Popular Television Shows/ Popular Music/ Major Events of 2006

    • Hamdan vs Rumsfeld
    • a

Sports

  • Sports

    • MLB: 2007 World Series
      Boston Red Sox win 4-0 against the Colorado Rockies

    -Oct 24& x2026; Colorado 1 at Boston 13

    -Oct 26& x2026; Colorado 1 at Boston 2

    -Oct 27& x2026;Boston 10 at Colorado 5

    -Oct 28& x2026;Boston 4 at Colorado 3

    • NFL: Super Bowl XLI
      Indianapolis Colts win 29-17 against the Chicago Bears

    -Super Bowl Box Score:
    Indianapolis& x2026; 6 10 6 7= 29

    Chicago& x2026;& x2026;..14 0 3 0= 17

    • Professional Golf
      Men's Majors winners
      - The Masters: Zach Johnson& x2026;71-73-76-69= 289

    - US Open: Angel Cabrera& x2026; 69-71-76-69=285
    - British Open: Pádraig Harrington& x2026;277

    - PGA Championship: Tiger Woods& x2026; 71-63-69-69=272

    Women's Majors winners
    - Kraft Nabisco Championship: Morgan Pressel& x2026; 74-72-70-69= 285
    - US Women's Open: Cristie Kerr& x2026;71-72-66-70=279
    - LPGA Championship: Suzann Pettersen& x2026;274 (-14)
    - Weetabix Women's British Open: Lorena Ochoa & x2026;287 (-5)

Popular Songs

1 Beyonce Irreplaceable
2 Rihanna feat. Jay-Z Umbrella
3 Gwen Stefani feat. Akon The Sweet Escape
4 Fergie Big Girls Don't Cry
5 T-Pain feat. Yung Joc Buy U A Drank (Shawty Snappin')
6 Carrie Underwood Before He Cheats
7 Plain White T's Hey There Delilah
8 Akon feat. Snoop Dogg I Wanna Love You
9 Nelly Furtado Say It Right
10 Fergie feat. Ludacris Glamorous

Popular Movies

  • No Country for Old Men - Joel Coen & Ethan Coen
  • Into the Wild - Sean Penn

    · Across the Universe

    · Superbad

    Transformers - Michael Bay

    · Knocked Up

    · Paranormal Activity

    · Juno

    · Ratatouille

    · The Bourne Ultimatum

    · Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

  • Best Picture: The Departed
  • Best Director: Martin Scorsese for The Departed
  • Best actor in a leading role: Forest Whitaker for The Last King of Scotland
  • Best actress in a leading role: Helen Mirren for The Queen
  • Best actor in a supporting role: Alan Arkin for Little Miss Sunshine
  • Best actress in a supporting role: Jennifer Hudson for Dreamgirls

Grammy Awards

  • Record of the Year: “Not Ready to Make Nice”- Dixie Chicks
  • Song of the Year: “Not Ready to Make Nice”- Dixie Chicks
  • Album of the Year: Taking the Long Way- Dixie Chicks
  • Best New Artist: Carrie Underwood

Nobel Prizes

.

  • Peace: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold Gore Jr. "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change".
  • Physiology or Medicine: Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
  • Economic Sciences: Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskinand Roger B. Myerson "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"
  • Chemistry: Gerhard Ertl "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"
  • Physics: Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg "for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"
  • Literature: Doris Lessing "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"

Pulitzer Prizes

  • • Public Service: The Wall Street Journal
    • Breaking News Reporting: Staff of The Oregonian, Portland
    • Investigative Reporting: Brett Blackledge of The Birmingham (AL) News
    • Explanatory Reporting: Kenneth R. Weiss, Usha Lee McFarling, reporters, and Rick Loomis, photographer, of the Los Angeles Times
    • Local Reporting: Debbie Cenziper of The Miami Herald
    • National Reporting: Charlie Savage of The Boston Globe
    • International Reporting: Staff of The Wall Street Journal
    • Feature Writing: Andrea Elliott of The New York Times
    • Commentary: Cynthia Tucker of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
    • Criticism: Jonathan Gold of LA Weekly
    • Editorial Writing: Arthur Browne, Beverly Weintraub and Heidi Evans of New York Daily News
    • Editorial Cartooning: Walt Handelsman of Newsday, Long Island, NY
    • Breaking News Photography: Oded Balilty of Associated Press
    • Feature Photography: Renée C. Byer of The Sacramento Bee
    • Fiction: The Road by Cormac McCarthy (Alfred A. Knopf)
    • Drama: “Rabbit Hole” by David Lindsay-Abaire
    • History: The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation by Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff (Alfred A. Knopf)
    • Biography or Autobiography: The Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher by Debby Applegate (Doubleday)
    • Poetry: Native Guard by Natasha Trethewey (Houghton Mifflin)
    • General Nonfiction: The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 by Lawrence Wright (Alfred A. Knopf)
    • Music: Sound Grammar by Ornette Coleman

2007 Summit

The American Academy of Achievement returned to Washington, D.C. for the 2007 International Achievement Summit. From June 19 to 23, nearly 300 graduate students from 50 countries gathered to learn from the experience of the world&rsquos leading figures in the arts and sciences, sports and entertainment, business, politics and public service. Twenty-nine new honorees were inducted into the Academy, joining a constellation of returning honorees and special guests for a series of symposium sessions and panel discussions held in the most historic and inspiring locations of our nation&rsquos capital. Members of the Academy, new and old, stayed at the elegant Hay-Adams Hotel, facing the White House across Lafayette Park.

First Lady Laura Bush, a 2007 Academy guest of honor, welcomes the delegates to the Achievement Summit.

Members of the Academy and special guests attending the 2007 Summit included: the 42nd President of the United States, William J. Clinton First Lady Laura Bush the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Roberts, and Justices Anthony M. Kennedy and Ruth Bader Ginsburg Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid Senators Chuck Hagel and Barack Obama Secretary of the Treasury Henry M. Paulson Secretary of Defense Robert Gates Attorney General Alberto Gonzales CIA Director Michael V. Hayden Deputy Secretary of State John D. Negroponte Congressman John Lewis the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Peter Pace former NATO Commanders Wesley Clark and Joseph Ralston the Mayor of Chicago, Richard M. Daley Nobel Peace Prize recipients Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Elie Wiesel recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature, Professor Toni Morrison Pulitzer Prize authors Thomas Friedman, N. Scott Momaday, Suzan-Lori Parks, Dana Priest, Neil Sheehan and Lawrence Wright Congressional Medal of Honor recipients Michael Thornton and Thomas Norris track and field legend Sir Roger Bannister Basketball Hall of Fame honoree Kareem Abdul-Jabbar Super Bowl champion quarterback Peyton Manning Olympic Gold Medalists Andre Agassi and Dorothy Hamill two-time Best Actress Oscar recipient Hilary Swank filmmaker George Lucas best-selling author Calvin Trillin and country music sensations Brooks and Dunn.

Justice Anthony M. Kennedy addresses Academy student delegates at the International Achievement Summit.

The Host Chairman of the 2007 Summit was Catherine B. Reynolds, Chairman and CEO of The Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation. The Summit was made possible by a generous grant from The Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation.

Chief Justice John Roberts and Council member Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg speak with the Academy students.

The week&rsquos events opened on a characteristically dramatic note on Tuesday, June 19, with an evening at the United States Supreme Court. The Academy&rsquos student delegates, many of whom had only arrived from overseas an hour or two earlier, were transported to the Court by motorcade with police escort. On arrival, they were received in the Courtroom by Chief Justice John Roberts, along with his colleagues, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, both members of the Academy&rsquos Awards Council. In the informal discussion that followed, the Justices surprised many of the students, not only with their warmth and good humor, but with their spirit of collegiality. Far from presenting the image of a court divided into opposing camps, the Justices emphasized their common commitment to the Constitution and to the pursuit of impartial justice.

Journalists Sam Donaldson and Neil Sheehan, General Wesley Clark, and Medal of Honor recipients Tommy Norris and Michael Thornton discuss the lessons of the Vietnam War in a session among the monuments of Washington.

Immediately after their question-and-answer session with the Justices, the student delegates were treated to an elegant dinner in the majestic Great Hall of the Court. Before returning to their hotel for the evening, the students took a tour of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Lincoln Memorial. At the Lincoln Memorial, they took part in an unusual discussion of the Vietnam War and its relevance to the war in Iraq, moderated by veteran broadcaster Sam Donaldson. The panel&rsquos participants were the renowned Vietnam War correspondent Neil Sheehan, along with three veterans of that conflict: General Wesley Clark, and Medal of Honor winners Michael Thornton and Thomas Norris.

White House Chief of Staff Josh Bolten addresses Academy students at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building.

The following morning, the student delegates took a tour of the National Archives, where they saw the famous Charters of Freedom: original copies of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the Archives&rsquo state-of-the-art MacGowan Theater, they heard from a number of distinguished Academy members, including the acclaimed author of Memoirs of a Geisha, Arthur Golden David Rubenstein, the founder of private equity giant The Carlyle Group consumer advocate Ralph Nader and Dr. Ian Frazer, creator of the human papilloma virus vaccine, the first vaccine to offer immunity against a specific form of cancer.

Presidential advisor Karl Rove engages Academy students in a spirited give-and-take during the Academy Summit.

In the afternoon, a large contingent of student delegates continued their exploration of the frontiers of medicine, traveling to the sprawling campus of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in nearby Bethesda, Maryland. There, they met with some of the distinguished Academy members from the medical sciences: the Director of NIH, Dr. Elias Zerhouni Dr. Francis Collins, the Director of the National Human Genome Project the Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Dr. Anthony Fauci and Dr. Steven Rosenberg, the Director of the National Cancer Institute. Students also met with a number of the Institute&rsquos patients &mdash men and women whose illness had not responded to conventional treatment but are now recovering and resuming normal lives through Dr. Rosenberg&rsquos revolutionary immuno-therapy. Dr. Rosenberg and his colleagues urged the Academy&rsquos student delegates, many of them medical scientists themselves, to continue exploring the unsolved mysteries of health and disease. Dr. Zerhouni recalled the feelings that led to his own breakthroughs in medical imaging: &ldquoLet me find a better way.&rdquo

U.S. Treasury Secretary Hank Paulson takes questions from student delegates in an afternoon symposium session.

That same afternoon, another contingent of Academy student delegates was taken for a rare behind-the-scenes visit to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, where much of the work of the White House staff is done. In Room 450, the familiar setting of televised press briefings, the students heard candid off-the-record remarks from the White House Chief of Staff, Josh Bolten, and from Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove, who surprised many of the students with his self-effacing good humor in the uninhibited give-and-take of a long question-and-answer session. Two new Academy members from the upper reaches of government also spoke with the Academy&rsquos students: the top-ranking officer in the United States military, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Peter Pace and Treasury Secretary Henry M. Paulson, who not only discussed his role as the federal government&rsquos chief financial officer, but his previous career as Chairman of the banking house Goldman Sachs, and as head of the world&rsquos largest environmental organization, The Nature Conservancy.

Dr. Steven A. Rosenberg discusses his cancer research with student delegates at the National Institutes of Health.

From the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, student delegates traveled to the Department of Justice, where they were met by Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and other top-ranking officials, including the FBI&rsquos Assistant Director for Counterterrorism, Joseph Billy, Jr., and the federal government&rsquos chief litigator, Solicitor General Paul Clement.

U.S. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, a recipient of the Golden Plate Award, addresses the Academy students.

That evening, all of the Academy&rsquos student delegates visited the Caucus Room of the Russell Senate Office Building. Amidst the high, coffered ceiling and imposing columns of this room, where so many historic Senate hearings have taken place, they heard from the ranking member of the upper house, Majority Leader Harry Reid. The excitement rose with the arrival of the charismatic Senator from Illinois, Barack Obama, who paid gracious tribute to Academy member Desmond Tutu, a hero of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa. Senator Chuck Hagel of Nebraska charmed the students with his down-to-earth manner and self-deprecating humor. All three Senators were inducted into the Academy of Achievement by Archbishop Tutu. Following their evening at the Russell Building, the students were taken to the Hall of Flags at the United States Chamber of Commerce for a dinner with the many members of the Academy who had arrived in Washington throughout the day. During the evening, student delegates Michelle Branch and Jessica Harp, also known as the Wreckers, performed a set of songs from their Grammy-nominated debut album.

U.S. Senator Barack Obama speaks about his lifelong passion for social justice at the 2007 Achievement Summit.

Thursday morning, the entire assemblage of Academy members and student delegates traveled to the State Department, where Academy members conducted a fascinating symposium on world affairs. A. Scott Berg, a past recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Biography, discussed his research for an upcoming book on President Woodrow Wilson, architect of the United States&rsquo leading role in international affairs. Legendary investigative journalist Bob Woodward discussed the war in Iraq and the leadership of President Bush. Lawrence Wright, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for his book on the terrorist group Al Qaeda, discussed his adventures as an investigative reporter in the Middle East. Washington Post reporter Dana Priest, who was also honored with a Pulitzer for investigative reporting, discussed her exposés of CIA secret prisons, controversial methods of interrogation, and unacceptable conditions in the outpatient facilities at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.

Archbishop Desmond Tutu, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, addresses the Academy at the State Department.

One of the most inspiring addresses of the week came from Archbishop Desmond Tutu. The Archbishop filled the hall with laughter when he presented the Biblical story of the Annunciation in the form of a knock-knock joke, before making a more profound point about the universal call to serve a cause larger than ourselves. The assembly enjoyed luncheon that day in the diplomatic reception rooms of the State Department, with their priceless collections of historic artifacts.

2007 Academy honoree Nora Ephron, award-winning screenwriter, novelist and director, reminisces on her career.

The afternoon session resumed at the Chamber of Commerce, with Academy member Dr. Benjamin Carson discussing his odyssey from the ghetto to the operating theater, where he has performed groundbreaking surgeries on the human brain. Scientific presentations during the Summit ranged from the cosmic to the microscopic. Astrophysicist Dr. John Mather demonstrated his Nobel Prize-winning discoveries concerning the microwave background radiation of the universe. Later in the Summit, Dr. Craig Mello made a breathtaking animated presentation of his discovery of RNAi, the &ldquointerfering&rdquo protein that regulates many phenomena of heredity and immunity.

Suzan-Lori Parks, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, charmed students with her ebullient presentation.

A panel discussion on social entrepreneurship, led by former presidential advisor David Gergen, featured Academy member Wendy Kopp, the founder of Teach for America, along with special guests Mike Feinberg, Kirsten Lodal, Jon Schnur and Billy Shore, who have all founded nonprofit organizations to provide quality education to disadvantaged youth.

Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi with Elie Wiesel and his wife Marion on the Speaker&rsquos balcony at the Capitol.

Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks delighted the audience with her effervescent personality, while making a more serious point, that public recognition of any professional accomplishment imposes a greater responsibility to society. Later in the Summit, the novelist and poet N. Scott Momaday also made a memorable appearance, telling three Native American tales &mdash legends and fables that illustrate the unique viewpoint of his ancestral culture. Thursday afternoon&rsquos program concluded with a bracingly witty address from the bestselling author and filmmaker Nora Ephron.

Golden Plate Awards Council member and Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley and his wife Maggie at the Capitol.

More remarkable experiences awaited the Summit participants. On Thursday evening, the student delegates were taken for a private tour of the United States Capitol, ending with a dinner in the Capitol&rsquos famed Statuary Hall. The entire assembly of students and Academy members traveled from the Capitol to the Cannon House Office Building through the underground passage used by members of Congress. At the Cannon Building, they heard from three exceptionally distinguished members of the Academy. First, they were welcomed by the Speaker of the House, Nancy J. Pelosi. Congressman John R. Lewis, a hero of the 1960s Civil Rights movement, made an impassioned and inspiring address. Congressman Lewis reminded the Academy&rsquos students of what the movement had accomplished without the aid of cell phones, the Internet, or any of the other communications technology that are now considered so essential to political activism.

Speaker Pelosi and Congressman John Lewis greet President Clinton at the International Achievement Summit.

The unmistakable high point of the evening came with the arrival of the 42nd President of the United States, William J. Clinton. President Clinton spoke at length, touching on a vast range of issues, from Iraq to global warming. He asserted that solutions to a wide range of problems, from health insurance to the conflict between Israel and Palestine, are already within reach. The outlines of successful compromise are well known to policy makers, he insisted all that remains is the political will to effect them. That impetus, he emphasized, will not come from elected political leaders. It must come from civil society and the people themselves.

Conservationist Richard Leakey and entrepreneur John Morgridge engage in a discussion of environmental issues.

The former president happily took challenging questions from the student delegates, supplying thorough, detailed answers to every question. In his most emphatic point, President Clinton noted that all human beings share more than 99 percent of their DNA. Like the Supreme Court Justices and the U.S. Senators who spoke earlier in the week &mdash and like Desmond Tutu, who spoke that morning &mdash President Clinton emphasized the need to concentrate on the universal aspirations that unite us all, rather than the relatively trivial differences that divide us.

Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and Academy member Thomas L. Friedman discusses the global climate crisis.

Friday morning&rsquos session at the Chamber of Commerce opened with a good friend of the Academy, Congressman Ed Markey, one of the House&rsquos established leaders on environmental issues. The Congressman led an informative discussion of Global Warming and the Environment with a distinguished panel of Academy members: marine biologist Sylvia Earle paleoanthropologist and conservationist Richard Leakey and John Morgridge, the business leader responsible for the success of Cisco Systems, who is now Chairman of The Nature Conservancy.

University presidents Shirley Ann Jackson and John Sexton with U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings.

Famed journalist Thomas Friedman, the recipient of multiple Pulitzer Prizes, addressed a number of topics in a wide-ranging conversation, but concentrated on the climate crisis and related environmental issues. Author Calvin Trillin followed with a deadpan recitation of his own career as a journalist and creative writer that had the audience of 500 dissolving in laughter while he retained his eternally dry, unflappable composure.

Super Bowl champion quarterback Peyton Manning joins the Academy at the International Achievement Summit.

Financier and philanthropist Mike Milken discussed his path to success in business and his prodigious charitable ventures. Legendary filmmaker George Lucas recalled the persistence that enabled him to succeed in a competitive field, while emphasizing the responsibility of men and women in all walks of life to serve a calling higher than mere self-interest.

The student delegates were surprised by the arrival of Hilary Swank, the compelling star of such films as Boys Don&rsquot Cry and Million Dollar Baby, roles that earned her two Oscars as Best Actress. In an utterly unpretentious and candid address, she discussed her grueling physical preparation for these demanding roles. Nothing worthwhile can be accomplished without complete dedication, she affirmed, and no award or other form of public recognition can take the place of the satisfaction that comes from continually meeting fresh challenges. The morning&rsquos session ended with a deeply moving appearance by Elie Wiesel, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Speaking in hushed tones, Wiesel held the audience spellbound as he described how the murder of his family, and his own experience in the concentration camps of World War II, inspired him to travel the world as a journalist, author and witness, exposing injustice wherever it arises.

First Lady Laura Bush receives the Golden Plate Award from famed Olympic ice skating champion Dorothy Hamill.

During a luncheon session, two pioneers of human stem cell research, Dr. James Thomson and Dr. John Gearhart, gave an intimate presentation of their research to a select group of the Academy&rsquos student delegates in the medical sciences. That afternoon&rsquos program began with an exceptional discussion of education policy, moderated by David Gergen.

Awards Council member David Rubenstein, the Co-founder of The Carlyle Group, presents the Golden Plate Award to Laurence D. Fink, the CEO of BlackRock, Inc., during the International Achievement Summit in Washington, D.C.

The Academy members who formed the panel are among the nation&rsquos most distinguished leaders in the fields of education policy: the Secretary of Education, Margaret Spellings Chicago Mayor and education reformer Richard M. Daley New York University President John Sexton MIT President Susan Hockfield and physicist Shirley Ann Jackson, the President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

Tennis champion and 2007 honoree Andre Agassi with Congresswoman Jane Harman with her husband Sidney.

The final speakers of the afternoon were some of the most distinguished athletes and artists the United States has produced, beginning with basketball legend Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and tennis champion Andre Agassi. The only living American recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature, Professor Toni Morrison, made an eloquent address and received an enthusiastic reception from the student delegates.

Legendary Broadway director Harold Prince receives the Golden Plate Award from Nobel laureate Toni Morrison.

Legendary theatrical director Harold Prince discussed his extraordinary half-century career. The last speaker of the afternoon was the quarterback of the world champion Indianapolis Colts, Peyton Manning. Manning is not only a champion on the gridiron, but an exceptionally active philanthropist, who devotes his time away from the football field to an array of innovative charitable activities.

Kix Brooks and Ronnie Dunn, recipients of 26 Academy of Country Music awards, receive the Golden Plate Award from Council members U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings and U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales.

The 2007 International Achievement Summit culminated in the black-tie Banquet of the Golden Plate at the historic Mellon Auditorium, transformed for the occasion into a glittering banquet hall, brimming with flowers. The Academy&rsquos Class of 2007 was inducted into the Academy, beginning with First Lady Laura Bush, who made a characteristically warm and gracious address, thanking the Summit&rsquos host, Catherine B. Reynolds, and praising the accomplishments of a number of Academy student delegates, past and present, including Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page. Academy members and students enjoyed a splendid meal and shed the solemnity of some of the week&rsquos more serious discussions to enjoy the rollicking music of Gretchen Wilson and Academy honorees Brooks and Dunn.

The Director of the CIA, General Michael Hayden, is presented with the Golden Plate Award by John Negroponte.

One might have wondered how an audience of serious young scholars, fresh from Oxford, Cambridge and the Ivy League, would respond to the uninhibited sounds of heartland America, but when Brooks and Dunn kicked into their signature song, &ldquoBoot Scootin&rsquo Boogie,&rdquo students, statesmen, distinguished political commentators and Nobel Prize-winning scientists all took to the dance floor.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Peter Pace, with Council member Secretary of Defense Robert Gates.

As speakers from Archbishop Tutu to President Clinton had reminded the assembly over the past week, human beings have far more in common than dictators and hate-mongers would have us believe. Opposing parties, different religions, half a hundred nations &mdash all met on the dance floor at the Mellon Auditorium to celebrate the joy of living in a world of limitless opportunity. The following morning, Academy members and student delegates returned to their respective homes, fired with renewed inspiration to dedicate their own unique talents to the common cause of all humanity.

Hilary Swank, recipient of two Oscars for Best Actress, with U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson at the Banquet.


Chronology Of News Events In 2007

Jan. 2
Seven New Orleans police officers surrender to face murder or attempted murder charges related to shootings on a bridge after Hurricane Katrina.
Oprah Winfrey opens a school for disadvantaged girls in South Africa.

Jan. 3
Crude oil prices open the new year at $58.32 a barrel.

Jan. 4
Nancy Pelosi is elected first female speaker of the House as Democrats take control of Congress.

Jan. 9
U.S. forces stage airstrikes against suspected al-Qaida fighters in Somalia in the first offensive there since 18 American soldiers were killed in 1993.
Tony Gwynn and Cal Ripken Jr. are elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame, but Mark McGwire falls far short.

Jan. 10
President Bush says he takes responsibility for any mistakes in Iraq and announces an increase in U.S. troops there to quell violence.

Jan. 12
Two kidnapped boys, Ben Ownby and Shawn Hornbeck, are found alive in the same suburban St. Louis apartment four days after Ben vanished and [email protected]/2 years after Shawn disappeared.

Jan. 18
Actor Isaiah Washington apologizes for using a gay slur against a ``Grey's Anatomy'' castmate on the set and at the Golden Globes ceremony.

Jan. 19
Former Republican Rep. Bob Ney is sentenced to [email protected]/2 years in prison in a lobbying scandal.

Jan. 20
Twenty-five U.S. troops are killed in Iraq, including 12 in a helicopter crash in Baghdad and five in a sophisticated sneak attack in Karbala.

Jan. 23
In his State of the Union address, President Bush implores Congress to give his unpopular plan to send more U.S. troops to Iraq ``a chance to work.''

Jan. 25
Ford Motor Co. says it lost $12.7 billion in 2006, the worst loss in the company's 103-year history.

Jan. 29
Kentucky Derby winner Barbaro is euthanized because of medical complications eight months after his gruesome breakdown at the Preakness.

Feb. 2
A panel of international scientists says global warming is ``very likely'' man-made.

Feb. 4
The Indianapolis Colts win the Super Bowl, beating the Chicago Bears 29-17.

Feb. 5
NASA astronaut Lisa Nowak is arrested and accused of trying to kidnap a rival for the affections of a space shuttle pilot.

Feb. 8
Tabloid bombshell Anna Nicole Smith dies in Florida at age 39 of an accidental drug overdose.

Feb. 11
The Dixie Chicks win five Grammys in a defiant comeback after being shunned over their anti-Bush comments about the Iraq war.

Feb. 12
A teenage gunman shoots nine people, killing five, at a mall in Salt Lake City before he is shot and killed by police.

Feb. 14
ConAgra recalls all Peter Pan and Great Value peanut butter made at a Georgia plant because of a salmonella outbreak.

Feb. 16
Britney Spears shaves her head and gets a new tattoo, then enters rehab.

Britain's Ministry of Defense says Prince Harry will be deployed to Iraq but later reverses the decision because of insurgent threats.

The Virginia General Assembly passes a resolution expressing ``profound regret'' for the state's role in slavery.

Feb. 25
``The Departed'' wins best picture at the Academy Awards and Martin Scorsese wins best director on his sixth nomination.

Feb. 26
The ``forever'' stamp good for mailing a letter no matter how much postal rates rise is recommended.

Feb. 27
A suicide bomber strikes Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan within earshot of Vice President Dick Cheney, who was rushed to a bomb shelter.
Dow Jones industrial average drops 546 points, the worst drop since the 2001 terrorist attacks.

March 1
A tornado blows down walls at Enterprise High School in Alabama, killing eight teenagers as the students huddled in the hallway.
The Army general in charge of Walter Reed Army Medical Center is relieved of command after disclosures about dilapidated buildings and inadequate treatment of wounded soldiers.

Vice president's former chief of staff, Scooter Libby, is convicted of lying and obstructing the CIA leak investigation.
A State Department report says the ongoing genocide in Sudan's Darfur region was the world's worst human rights abuse last year.

March 8
``American Idol'' viewers pick Sanjaya Malakar as the 12th finalist and he improbably survives five more weeks before being voted off.

March 13
Attorney General Alberto Gonzales admits mistakes were made in how the Justice Department handled the dismissal of eight federal prosecutors but says he won't resign.

March 14
The Pentagon releases the transcript of a military hearing in which Khalid Sheikh Mohammed says he ``was responsible for the 9/11 operation from A to Z.''
President Bush says he's not happy the Justice Department made mistakes in explaining its actions to Congress, but he says the prosecutors' firings were appropriate.

March 15
Angelina Jolie adopts a 3-year-old boy from an orphanage in Vietnam Pax Thien is her fourth child with Brad Pitt.

March 18
Dog and cat foods sold under multiple brand names are recalled because of pet illnesses and deaths inspectors later say an ingredient from China was tainted with melamine.

March 22
John and Elizabeth Edwards say her cancer has returned in an incurable form, but he plans to continue his presidential campaign.

March 23
Iran seizes 15 British sailors and marines in the disputed Shatt Al-Arab waterway between Iran and Iraq.

March 28
Iranian state TV shows video of the seized sailors and marines, and the lone female captive is shown in a white tunic and a black head scarf saying the British boats had ``trespassed.''

April 2
Florida wins its second consecutive college basketball championship, beating Ohio State 84-75.

April 4
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad gleefully announces the release of 15 captive British sailors and marines, who leave Tehran the next day.
Radio host Don Imus makes offensive remarks about the Rutgers University women's basketball team, apologizing two days later. CBS Radio fires him, but he is hired elsewhere by the end of the year.

April 6
A panel of international scientists says millions of poor people will suffer from hunger, thirst, floods and disease unless drastic action is taken against global warming.

April 11
North Carolina's top prosecutor drops sexual assault charges against three Duke University lacrosse players and says the athletes were innocent victims of a ``tragic rush to accuse.''
``Slaughterhouse-Five'' author Kurt Vonnegut dies.

April 12
A suicide bomber breaches security in Iraq's parliament and blows himself up amid lawmakers having lunch in the dining hall a Sunni parliament member is killed.
New Jersey Gov. Jon S. Corzine breaks his leg and several ribs in a highway crash.

April 16
A suicidal student kills 32 people on the Virginia Tech campus in the deadliest shooting rampage in U.S. history.

April 18
The Supreme Court rules 5-4 that a ban on a specific abortion method is constitutional.

Four bombings penetrate the security net around Baghdad, including one attack at a Shiite market that kills more than 120 people.

April 23
Boris Yeltsin, the first freely elected Russian president, dies.

April 26
Congress narrowly approves legislation that contains a 12-month timetable for the withdrawal of U.S. combat troops from Iraq, which Bush later vetoes.

April 27
The government says economic growth slowed to a near crawl of 1.3 percent in the first quarter, the worst performance in four years.

May 3
Mercury Seven astronaut Wally Schirra dies.

May 4
Tornado destroys most of Greensburg, Kan., killing 11 people.
``Spider-Man 3'' snares audiences with a record $59.8 million on its first day.

May 5
Street Sense roars from next-to-last in a 20-horse field to win the Kentucky Derby.

May 6
Conservative Nicolas Sarkozy wins the French presidency with a mandate to make economic reforms.

May 8
Six foreign-born men are charged in what authorities say was a plot to attack the Fort Dix Army base in New Jersey.

May 11
As graduation ceremonies begin, Virginia Tech remembers victims of April shooting massacre.

May 12
A U.S. patrol is attacked south of Baghdad, and five Americans and an Iraqi interpreter are killed two soldiers are still missing.

May 14
DaimlerChrysler says it is selling almost all of Chrysler to private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management for $7.4 billion, backing out of a troubled 1998 takeover.

May 15
The Rev. Jerry Falwell, who built the religious right into a political force, dies.

May 21
Israel launches new airstrikes against Palestinian rocket squads in the Gaza Strip, killing five militants. An Israeli woman is killed by a rocket fired from Gaza.

May 23
Teenager Jordin Sparks wins ``American Idol.''

May 25
A man infected with drug-resistant tuberculosis is quarantined after he returns from his European wedding and honeymoon.

May 29
Health officials say passengers on the same flights as Andrew Speaker should be tested for tuberculosis, though their risk of infection is low.

May 30
A Saudi held at the Guantanamo Bay prison since 2002 is found dead of an apparent suicide.

June 1
The FDA warns that toothpaste made in China may contain a poisonous chemical used in antifreeze.

June 3
After attending the MTV Movie Awards, Paris Hilton reports to jail to serve 23 days for a probation violation. She's released three days later for an unspecified medical condition.

June 4
Rep. William Jefferson of Louisiana is charged in a bribery scheme.

June 5
Scooter Libby is sentenced to [email protected]/2 years for lying and obstructing the CIA leak investigation, but President Bush later commutes the prison sentence.

June 6
Powerful Cyclone Gonu strikes Oman with 100 mph winds, causing at least 49 deaths.
Bob Barker films his last episode of ``The Price Is Right'' and retires.

June 8
Crying out for her mother, Paris Hilton is ordered back to jail to serve out her sentence.

June 9
Rags to Riches becomes the first filly to win the Belmont Stakes since 1905.

June 10
``The Sopranos'' final episode cuts to black, leaving viewers to eternally debate whether Tony Soprano survived.

June 14
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas declares an emergency after the Hamas militant group effectively took control of the Gaza Strip.
A reputed Klansman is convicted of kidnapping two black teenagers who were deliberately drowned in Mississippi in 1964.
San Antonio Spurs win fourth NBA title in nine years.

June 16
Durham District Attorney Mike Nifong is disbarred over the Duke lacrosse case.
Sunita Williams ends the longest single spaceflight by any woman, 195 days.

June 18
Warehouse fire kills nine firefighters in Charleston, S.C.

June 25
A judge rules in favor of a dry cleaner sued by a dissatisfied customer who demanded $54 million for his missing pants.

June 27
Gordon Brown succeeds Tony Blair as British prime minister.

June 28
The American bald eagle is removed from the endangered species list.

June 29
First iPhones are sold.

June 30
Two men crash an explosive-laden Jeep at Glasgow Airport, two days after two cars rigged as bombs were found in London.

First published on December 18, 2007 / 3:24 PM

© 2007 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.


Culture

Women’s rights: In January, the Women’s March on Washington, which advocated for policies regarding women’s rights and other issues, became one of the largest single-day demonstrations in U.S. history.

The Washington Post estimated that more than 5 million people may have attended 653 marches in U.S. cities, rivaling participation in the Vietnam War Moratorium Days of 1969 and 1970.

Later, women of the #MeToo movement, a social media campaign to raise awareness about sexual harassment and assault, would be named Time magazine’s Person of the Year, after helping take down a number of pop culture’s most powerful men.

Super Bowl comeback: The New England Patriots mounted the largest comeback in Super Bowl history to beat the Atlanta Falcons in overtime after trailing by 25 points in the third quarter.

NFL anthem protests: During the 2017 football season, several National Football League players remained kneeling during the national anthem in silent protest of racial bias, violence and profiling by police forces around the country. President Trump attacked the players on Twitter, sparking a further wave of protest by NFL players.


2. History Facts From the USA

  1. In 2007, George W. Bush was President of the United States, and Dick Cheney was Vice-President. Bush’s presidency began on January 20, 2001, when he was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States. His term of office ended on January 20, 2009, when Barach Obama was inaugurated as the 44th U.S. President.
  2. In December 2007, the national unemployment rate was 5.00%. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 𠇏rom 2006 to 2007, annual average unemployment rates declined in 28 states and the District of Columbia, rose in 16 states, and were unchanged in 6 states. For the second year in a row, the South reported the lowest jobless rate, 4.3 percent in 2007, while the Midwest recorded the highest rate for the third consecutive year, 5.1 percent.”
  3. The rate of inflation was 2.85%. In2013Dollars.com tells us that “prices in 2017 are 18.22% higher than prices in 2007. The dollar experienced an average inflation rate of 1.69% per year during this period. In other words, $100 in 2007 is equivalent in purchasing power to $118.22 in 2017, a difference of $18.22 over 10 years.”
  4. In 2007, a loaf of white bread cost $1.20, a dozen eggs were $1.68, one pound of sliced bacon was $3.66, and strawberries cost $2.20 for 12 ounces. A gallon of milk was $3.50, one-half gallon of ice cream cost $3.95, salted butter was $3.07 a pound, and a loaf of whole wheat bread cost $1.71.
  5. Here were the sticker prices for three best-selling 2007 cars: a Chrysler Sebring cost $18,995.00, a Ford Explorer (Eddie Bauer edition) was $32,080.00, and a Toyota Corolla cost $12,499.00.
  6. The average price for a gallon of gas was $3.38. Reuters.com explains that “U.S. average gasoline prices rose 8 percent, or 21 cents, in 2007 from the prior year . . . as oil prices rose. Gasoline prices rose as the price of U.S. crude oil rose from about $60 a barrel at the end of 2006 to more than $90 a barrel near the end of 2007.”
  7. The minimum wage was $5.15, the prime rate was 7.75%, one ounce of gold was $630.00, and the average annual income was $50,823.00.
  8. In January 2007, the median cost of a newly-built, single-family home in the United States was $254,400 while the average price was $314,600. Comparatively, in January 2018, the median cost of a newly-built, single-family home in the U.S. was $329,600 while the average price was $377,800.
  9. On January 4, the 110th United States Congress convened and elected Nancy Pelosi as the first female Speaker of the House. History.com tells us that “Pelosi’s Congressional career began 20 years before when she was one of only 25 women who served in both the House and the Senate. She became the Democratic whip in 2001 and served as the minority leader between 2003 and her election as speaker in 2007. In 2002, she was one of the House members to vote against President George W. Bush’s request to use military force in Iraq.”
  10. On February 19, David Karp launched the blogging website Tumblr.
  11. On April 16, the Virginia Tech massacre, the third deadliest shooting rampage American history, took place on the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. South Korean-born Seung-Hui Cho killed 32 people and injured 23 others before taking his own life.
  12. The tornado outbreak of May 4-6 had a devastating impact on parts of the Midwest. On May 4, nearly 95% of the small town of Greensburg, Kansas was destroyed by 𠇊 1.7-mile wide EF-5 tornado, with a maximum wind speed of 205mph.” iWeatherNet.com explains that “The Greensburg tornado was the first tornado to earn the classification of EF-5 following the adoption of the Enhanced Fujita Scale in early 2007. It was also the first tornado of F-5 or EF-5 intensity in the United States in more than 8 years.”
  13. On May 25, President Bush signed the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 into law. The act amended the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to increase the federal minimum wage in three increments: to $5.85 an hour on the 60th day after enactment (7-24-07) to $6.55 an hour 12 months after the 60th day (7-24-08) and to $7.25 an hour 24 months after the 60th day (7-24-09).
  14. On June 5, the MESSENGER spacecraft performed a second flyby of Venus.
  15. On August 4, NASA&aposs Phoenix spaceship was launched.
  16. On August 8, Carlos Slim surpassed Bill Gates as world&aposs richest person. Slim, a Mexican business magnate and engineer, had an estimated net worth of $59 billion.
  17. On August 22, the "Storm botnet" sent out a record 57 million e-mails in a twenty-four period.
  18. On August 23, the hashtag was first used in a tweet by U.S. product designer Chris Messina.
  19. In September, the Storm botnet was running on anywhere from one to 50 million computers.
  20. On September 29, Calder Hall, the world&aposs first nuclear power station, was demolished during a controlled explosion.
  21. On October 9, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 14,164.53, an all-time high. On October 11, the DJIA hit an intra-day peak of 14,198.10 before starting to decline. Investors were breathing a sigh of relief that there could be another interest rate cut by the end of the year.
  22. On November 14, Con Edison ended 125 years of 𠇍irect current electricity service” that began on September 4, 1882, when Thomas Edison opened the first central power plant at 255-257 Pearl Street in Manhattan.
  23. On December 31, the Central Artery/Tunnel Project, also known unofficially as the Big Dig, ended in Boston, Massachusetts. NBCNews.com explains that Big Dig built a 𠇍izzying array of underground highways, bridges, ramps and a new tunnel under Boston Harbor--all while the city remained open for business.”

The 50 Biggest Highlights of the 2010s

The 2010s brought us Hamilton, streaming services, and so much Beyoncé.

It doesn't seem like that long ago that we were closing out the aughts and welcoming in the 2010s. But in the blink of an eye, here we are, about to enter the 2020s. Of course, there were many challenging and controversial moments in the past decade, both on global and personal scales, but there's nothing like the end of one chapter and the start of another to look back on all the reasons we have to be thankful. From innovative technology that's changed our lives, to vaccines that've made the world a healthier place, to pop culture revolutionaries like Beyoncé and Hamilton creator Lin-Manuel Miranda, to long-time sports curses that were broken—the 2010s have seen a lot of highlights. Let's take a look back at the 50 things from the last decade that we're thankful for.

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Fans of Star Wars have been burned before—just mention the name "Jar Jar Binks" around any fan of the original trilogy. But when Disney bought Lucasfilm in 2012 and subsequently announced the franchise would be returning in 2015 with some of the original characters and actors, there was reason for a new hope, if you will. True to their word, Disney released the J.J. Abrams-directed The Force Awakens in 2015—and most fans were delighted to see the world they loved brought back to the big screen. Since then, the Star Wars universe has expanded to supplementary films like Rogue One and Solo, with more on the way.

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It's truly the unlikeliest of pairings: Broadway, hip-hop, and the guy on the $10 bill. However, Hamilton creator Lin-Manuel Miranda managed to not just make it work, but to make it a massive success. Starting with an 818-page biography of the Founding Father, Miranda turned the life and struggles of Alexander Hamilton into a musical in 2015, and it went on to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 2016. Even more impressive, thanks to Miranda, kids who previously had trouble finishing their American history homework can now rap eloquently about the origins of the U.S. federal government.

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Whether you're an Apple or Android person, smartphones have undeniably changed not only the way we communicate, but also the way we find and process information. Yes, many lament our struggles to put down the phone, but in so many ways, these devices have made our lives easier. When was the last time you got truly lost in a new city? How long did it take you to settle that bar bet over Dolly Parton's character's name in 9 to 5? How far away is the most remote friend you've texted today? While smartphones can be a mixed blessing, they've still given us a lot to be thankful for.

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Speaking of smartphones, these handheld devices have also revolutionized video gaming. In 2009, the Finnish company Rovio Entertainment introduced us to a group of irate avians who would stop at nothing to retrieve their eggs from the green pigs who had stolen them. Yes, we're talking about Angry Birds. To date, there have been 25 games and spin-offs in the series, 2 movies, a U.S. and international theme parks, dozens of toys, and a cookbook. Even if you think they've gone overboard, you probably owe Angry Birds a debt of gratitude for allowing you to kill time in a waiting room or two over the past ten years.

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Yes, she's been around since the '90s, but we must always remember to be grateful for Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter. She welcomed in the 2010s with "Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)" and proceeded to drop four more albums within the decade. In that time, she's gone on four world tours (two with her husband, Jay-Z) and won thirteen Grammy awards (for a grand total of twenty-three). In 2016, she pushed boundaries with her Super Bowl halftime performance of "Formation" and the subsequent release of the concept album Lemonade. It remains to be seen what Queen Bey will do in the coming decade, but whatever it is, we're grateful to be able to listen and watch.

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Ten years ago, the phrase "streaming" probably made you think of water. Now, it refers to services that put massive libraries of TV shows, movies, and other video content right at our fingertips. Netflix debuted their video-on-demand service in 2007, but it wasn't until 2013 that they started releasing their own original content, and Hulu and Amazon weren't far behind. Physical forms of media like video tapes and DVDs have fallen by the wayside now that you can find pretty much anything you want to watch with the click of a button. All of us who've ever had a video tape unravel or DVD scratch couldn't be more grateful.

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Sporting events are polarizing—as they say in "Take Me Out to the Ballgame," if your team doesn't win, it's a shame. But even people outside Chicago found reason to celebrate when the Cubs baseball team broke their 108-year losing streak and finally won the World Series in 2016. Of course, that meant the Cleveland Indians had to go home with its 68-year championship drought intact. Nonetheless, five million fans attended the Cubs' victory parade, grateful to no longer be the butt of many a sports joke.

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The past few years have seen TV overtake movies as real prestige entertainment. Increased budgets and production standards have drawn the best writers and actors from the silver screen to the small screen, and as viewers, we're the ones who have benefitted. Take the British drama Downton Abbey, for example. It became an unusual favorite after its U.S. debut in 2011, captivating audiences not with action sequences or special effects, but with the human drama of an aristocratic family in the 1910s and '20s. And if you had to pick just one element of the show to be thankful for, we can only assume you'd go with Dame Maggie Smith's bone-dry one-liners as the Dowager Countess.

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It's the simplest of premises: Don't hang on to junk that doesn't make you happy. However, the woman who taught it has become an international sensation for her philosophy of living. Japanese organizing consultant Marie Kondo published The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up in 2011, and her Shinto-based approach to cleaning, called the KonMari Method, asks the cleaner to treasure what they have and give away anything that doesn't "spark joy." Kondo's fresh perspective on cleaning and organizing has helped people around the world live in more mindful and less cluttered homes.

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In much of the Western world, the 20th century marked the expanding of civil rights to various historically oppressed groups, including women and racial minorities. We still have quite a long ways to go when it comes to making true human equality a reality, but we took another step closer this past decade when it came to marriage. In 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples have a fundamental right to marriage, following the precedent of many other English-speaking countries. Love is truly a cause to celebrate.

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This decade may not have brought the hoverboards that Back to the Future promised us, but we did take a huge step into the future in the 2010s with 3D printing technology. These printers typically create objects by adding layer on top of layer of material, usually some type of plastic, until the desired shape is achieved. Sure, they can create toys and tools, but these printers can also put out entirely customized medical implants or prostheses to replace bones and other body parts. One day, doctors may even be able to print out whole living organs!

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Comic book nerds rejoice—it's been your decade! While there had been a smattering of superhero movies over the years, the genre really came into its own in the past decade. Marvel kicked off the trend, releasing not just individual movies for comic book favorites like Iron Man, Captain America, and Thor, but creating an interconnected cinematic universe with room for the likes of Black Panther with its all-black cast and the female-fronted Captain Marvel, as well. And the DC Universe had even greater success with the record-breaking smash Wonder Woman. Of course, some will argue that we've reached the point of too much of a good thing, but we've undoubtedly had some big wins from the superhero genre in the 2010s.

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Not all heroes wear capes. Exhibit A: Malala Yousafzai, an activist for female empowerment and education in Pakistan at an age when most of us couldn't think farther ahead than the next homework assignment. At 15, a member of the Taliban attempted to assassinate her for her work. She survived being shot in the head and evacuated to Britain for her own safety her 2013 book, I Am Malala, became an international bestseller, and she became the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Peace Prize the following year. Her bravery and refusal to back down in the face of persecution serves as an example to the millions of young people seeking to make positive change in the world.

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You may not understand it, but you almost certainly use it. Just like video content has switched from physical media to streaming services, so has data and processing power switched from personal devices to "the cloud." This term is just shorthand for the process of cloud computing, in which data storage and computing power are handled not by our individual devices but by distant servers. The technology has allowed our devices to hold more music and photos and stream videos faster. Plus, you no longer have to worry about your back-up files getting deleted or going missing—and that's a huge step in the right direction!

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Great works of fantasy literature tend to be described as epics—think Lord of the Rings or the Earthsea series. This decade has seen an addition to the canon with author N.K. Jemisin's books The Fifth Season (2015), The Obelisk Gate (2016), and The Stone Sky (2017), collectively known as the Broken Earth trilogy. And the fact that Jemisin is an African-American woman—and the only author to win a Hugo Award for best novel three years in a row—just makes it all the more revolutionary.

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It's hard to believe it's only been 10 years since the world was first introduced to Lady Gaga. Although she began performing in 2001, Gaga didn't become a household name until the release of her 2009 album The Fame Monster. Soon after, she was wearing a dress made of raw meat to the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards and 16-inch heels to meet President Obama. Although she's toned down her fashion in recent years, she continues to re-invent herself: In a matter of a decade, she's become an actress, an Academy Award winner, and an activist. If there's one thing Gaga is not, it's stagnant.

Courtesy of Serial

Before the last weeks of 2014, few people had heard the name Adnan Syed, and even fewer cared whether there was a pay phone outside of a Best Buy in Baltimore in 1999. Then Serial, a podcast hosted by journalist Sarah Koenig, introduced the country to the facts of Syed's case. Millions downloaded and listened along to find out whether Koenig could uncover evidence of Syed's innocence. The following two seasons never could quite replicate the buzz of the first in 2014, but the show did succeed at getting many listeners into the world of podcasts.

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Although it's barely been around for two years, the video game Fortnite has an enormous impact on more than just the gaming world. Even if you've never played, you've likely seen children or teenagers or some very flexible adults flossin', which the game popularized. Love it or hate it, there's no denying Fortnite's staying power.

HBO

For the sake of argument, let's set aside those last two seasons and talk about the journey, not the destination. HBO's Game of Thrones introduced us to George R.R. Martin's fictional land of Westeros, home to dozens of feuding nobles, their terrible secrets, and precisely three dragons. Although nearly the entire run of the show, from 2011 to 2019, was marked with some controversy, we cared about the characters and rooted for our favorites to find some happiness in a world where no protagonist was safe from the axe. The fact that it had to end at all was a large part of the problem.

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Anyone who has watched LeBron James play basketball can't deny that he's one of the best there's ever been. Millions waited to hear the results of his polarizing decision to leave his hometown team in Cleveland Cavaliers and join the Miami Heat in 2010. He won two championships with the Heat, and then returned to the Cavaliers to win one more. But since 2018, James has been a member of the Los Angeles Lakers. Although some basketball fans have trouble getting past James's extended time in the spotlight, he feels his own most important achievement is the school he opened for struggling elementary students last year. And we can all be thankful for that, right?

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NBC gave Michael Schur, showrunner of The Office and co-creator of Parks & Recreation and Brooklyn Nine-Nine, free rein to create a half-hour comedy of his choosing. What he came up with in 2016 is nothing like any other show on TV. The Good Place begins with four humans starting their afterlives in a sort of secular heaven that bears the show's title, but it's impossible to summarize more than that without spoiling anything. The show takes a deep dive into moral philosophy and features characters who actually change and grow as their stories progress, which is unusual for a comedy show. Now in its fourth and final season, it's one of the funniest things to hit TVs in the past decade.

Royal Studios via YouTube

"Uptown Funk," by Mark Ronson ft. Bruno Mars, has been nearly inescapable since it debuted in 2014. The song spent 14 weeks atop Billboard's Hot 100 list in 2015, putting it behind only Mariah Carey and Boyz II Men's "One Sweet Day," Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee's "Despacito," and eventually Lil Nas X and Billy Ray Cyrus' "Old Town Road" for the longest-lasting No. 1 hit. But it's almost certainly "Uptown Funk," with its funk-pop rhythm, that will be played by wedding DJs from now until the end of Western civilization.

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When she released Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in 2007, the last of the seven books in the series, J.K. Rowling swore she was done with the universe of Harry Potter and his friends. However, after writing a few adult mystery novels under a different pen name, Rowling returned to Hogwarts, writing short stories, the story for the play Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, and the screenplays for two Fantastic Beasts films, with the potential for more down the line. While fan reactions to some of this expanded material has been mixed, the fictional universe remains as popular and captivating as ever.

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When the original Harry Potter series ended, many publishers rushed in to fill the void in young adult fiction, and as a result, the genre has given us some of the best new authors and titles of the last decade, like Angie Thomas's 2017 The Hate U Give. Although it's aimed at teenagers, the story deals with some of the heaviest topics in the news over the past decade, namely racism, police shootings, and trauma. It remained on The New York Times bestseller list for 80 weeks and was adapted into a movie in 2018, showing how strongly it resonates with a broad audience.

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In 2015 and 2016, many parts of the world were hit hard by the Zika virus, a disease that is particularly dangerous to developing fetuses. The West African Ebola virus outbreak was more geographically contained, but the disease is so deadly that its mere presence terrified the world. Luckily, epidemiologists have been working ceaselessly to create vaccines to prevent the spread of these viruses. While none have yet been approved for clinical use because of the lengthy review process, compassionate use protocols have seen the rVSV-ZEBOV used against Ebola and several experimental vaccines used against Zika with promising results.

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George Miller's return to the Mad Max universe could have easily been drowned out by the glut of reboots, reimaginings, and sequels released in movie theaters in the 2010s. But anyone who saw it on the big screen in 2015 knows why it stands out. From the very look of the cinematography, you can't deny Fury Road's place in Miller's post-apocalyptic pantheon. Tom Hardy has such a powerful screen presence that he hardly needs to speak as the titular Max, and Charlize Theron's Furiosa is an unstoppable force leading what amounts to one long chase sequence through the desert. Between the aerial stunts, the lightning-fast editing, and that guy playing a flame-throwing electric guitar, watching Mad Max: Fury Road is a truly cinematic experience.

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Millions of Pokémon fans' dreams came true in 2016 when game developer Niantic finally gave them the ability to catch the fantastic creatures in real life. OK, so you still can't actually find a real-life Snorlax, but Pokémon Go gives players the opportunity to go outside and "find" exclusive creatures all over the world. By using your phone's camera, you can spot the animated characters superimposed over your physical location and use in-game tools to catch them. Although the game featured some technical issues and led to unforeseen consequences—such as players getting injured by walking around without paying attention to where they were going—it offered an entirely new way to game and brought a whole community of Pokémon fans together.

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How did we handle break-ups before Adele? She kicked off the decade with her hit album 21, which was her age at the time she recorded it (though it's hard to believe from the maturity of her voice and her lyrics). After taking some time off to rest her vocal cords and recover from throat surgery, she released 25 in 2015 and embarked on another world tour. People of every age relate to her songs about heartbreak, forgiveness, and nostalgia, though few can imitate her soaring vocals. She's thought to be releasing another album in December 2019, which will give us even more to be thankful for as we enter the 2020s.

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Creating an animated series that appeals to both children and adults is no easy feat. Creating one that does so and also maintains a 100 percent rating on Rotten Tomatoes is nearly impossible. However, Rebecca Sugar managed to do all this with Steven Universe, a coming-of-age series about a boy who lives with a group of aliens called the Crystal Gems that premiered in 2013. It manages to be funny without being cynical and uplifting without being saccharine. In addition to the show's compelling characters, it includes positive representations of LGBTQ characters, an aspect that made it the first animated series to win a GLAAD Media Award in 2019.

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If you haven't heard of the McElroy Brothers—oldest brother Justin, middle brother Travis, and baby brother Griffin—and their dad, Clint, you're probably not a fan of podcasts. The brothers, originally from West Virginia, started out in 2010 making a silly advice podcast called My Brother, My Brother and Me as a way to stay in touch with each other. A 2014 special episode where they played Dungeons & Dragons with their dad ended up spinning off into a new show, The Adventure Zone, which quickly became a massive hit of its own. The McElroys' delightful banter, zany humor, and flair for storytelling make for a consistently amusing listening experience.

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If there's one name in hockey that every American knows, it's Wayne Gretsky. But they ought to get to know Alexander Ovechkin, too, because he may overtake Gretsky in total goals scored during the course of his career. Russian-born Ovechkin, often called "Ovi" or "Great Eight," was a first-round draft pick for the Washington Capitals in 2004, and he soon became the face of the team. Since then, he's been the NHL's MVP three times and won nearly every trophy there is, finally leading the Caps to win the Stanley Cup in 2018.

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Any true Trekkie will tell you that Star Trek never really went away, but it did come roaring back to the public consciousness with the 2009 action-packed big-screen reboot of the original series. It introduced Kirk, Spock, and the rest of the Enterprise crew to a whole new generation of viewers, and soon CBS was keen to start a new TV series as well. Star Trek Discovery premiered in 2017, and it will soon be followed up by Picard, a further exploration of Sir Patrick Stewart's character from The Next Generation, as well as an animated series called Lower Decks, expected to hit CBS All Access in 2020. With no end of new material in sight, Trekkies have a lot to be thankful for.

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There's a lot of talk these days about "slacktivism"—that is, paying lip service to a cause, usually on social media, without actually doing anything real for it. However, with #MeToo, the very act of posting one's story of sexual assault or harassment on social media was the movement, a way to let other survivors know they aren't alone and a way to tell the world that this is a real, pervasive problem. Started by activist Tarana Burke and popularized by actress Alyssa Milano in 2018, this hashtag has forced us to have difficult conversations about the ways power and gender intersect.

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We've learned in recent years not to take for granted any public figure who is a genuinely good person and treats everyone with respect, and in that vein, it's important to be grateful for Keanu Reeves. Say whatever you like about his acting, but he's a stand-up human being who gives large parts of his earnings to charity anonymously and will always stop to help a fan in need. The John Wick series, which had a strong showing since its 2014 debut, proves that he's still a verifiable movie star, and his cameo in 2019's Always Be My Maybe shows that he's more than willing to poke fun at his own image.

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Tinder has changed the way people meet. Online dating services have been around as long as the internet, but the location-based Tinder app, launched in 2012, has turned the matching process into a game. Phrases such as "swipe left/right" have made their way into the popular lexicon, and many married couples today have met on Tinder. While people who are only looking for a quick hook-up can certainly find what they want on the app, the past few years have shown that people are still looking for the same things in relationships they always have been, and Tinder merely facilitates the meeting.

My Favorite Murder

The ways that people perceive and talk about crime are always changing, and the latest trend consists largely of women who aren't afraid to say that they're fascinated with murder, kidnapping, and other violent crimes. Hosts Karen Kilgariff and Georgia Hardstark of the podcast My Favorite Murder, which debuted in 2016, have been two of the leading voices in this trend, each discussing one crime (or disaster) per week. They make it clear that their fascination with murder isn't prurience but rather curiosity combined with a very real threat of violence that women have to live with every day.

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The first Mass Effect game came out in 2007, and it received a decent amount of accolades. However, it was Mass Effect 2, released in 2010, that really set the gaming world on fire. Part of the draw was that the decisions made by anyone who had played the first Mass Effect affected the storyline of the sequel—and the visuals, the narrative, and the character development all received high praise from reviewers and players alike. The conclusion of the trilogy, released in 2012, had a controversial ending, but that hasn't stopped spin-offs in the form of other games, tie-in novels, action figures, and fan films.

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Most world records are broken by small increments, particular in short-distance speed events—a single hundredth of a second can separate No. 1 from No. 2. Every now and then, however, we'll see an athlete who represents a huge leap forward of human achievement. Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt is one of those athletes. He won gold in the 100m and 200m in three consecutive Olympics. When he broke the world record for the 100m dash, he did so by more than a full tenth of a second—the largest margin since electronic timing began. Although Bolt retired in 2017, his records are likely to stand for a long time.

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Korean pop music is to the last decade what British pop was to the 1960s—a worldwide phenomenon. And though the seven-member group BTS (short for Bangtan Sonyeondan, or Bangtan Boys) isn't the first K-pop group to hit the world stage, they are The Beatles of the genre. In fact, in 2019, they became the first band since The Beatles to have three albums top the Billboard charts in the span of a year.

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Featuring a combination of supernatural phenomena, talented child actors, and '80s nostalgia, Stranger Things, which premiered on Netflix in 2016, is one of the streamer's most talked about shows. Though the streaming service rarely releases viewership numbers, it claims that 64 million people watched the third season in the first month after it was released. Adults and teenagers alike relate to the characters trying to figure out what's going on in their fictional town of Hawkins, Indiana, with walkie-talkies as their only technological aid.

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Although director Taika Waititi has thus far only directed one major Hollywood film, it was a doozy. Thor: Ragnarok, released in 2017, was the highest-grossing film of the Thor trilogy. Waititi has been working even longer in his home country of New Zealand, writing and directing such cult favorites as the TV series The Flight of the Conchords (HBO) and What We Do in Shadows (FX). The fact that he's now getting his due in Hollywood is infinitely gratifying to his many fans.

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As the longest-running science-fiction television show in history, Doctor Who has gone through as many changes as its title character. Despite the recent version's modern sensibilities, the fact remained that the Doctor—an alien time-traveler who regenerates into a new body every few years—had always been a man for no real in-story reason. After much outcry, the thirteenth regeneration of the Doctor was played by British actress Jodie Whittaker. Whittaker, who stepped into the role in 2018, has spoken at length about Doctor Who's female fans, particularly young girls, who have expressed enormous gratitude for her taking on the challenge.

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It seemed like a shameless cash grab: a movie about a toy that was only made to sell more of the toy. But 2014's The Lego Movie turned out to be a surprisingly clever riff on childhood whimsy. Without giving away any spoilers, there's a very good reason to have a generic Lego man, Gandalf, Batman, pirates, and 1980s Space Guy (among others) all fighting the bad guys together. Every detail of the film, like the use of human-made "pew pew" sounds for the laser guns, is thoughtful and charming—even grown-ups can truly enjoy watching it with kids. And thankfully, we got a sequel in 2019.

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Kids aren't watching as much TV these days—but they are watching plenty of YouTube. In the past decade, the phenomenon of the web series—a show filmed for and released on the internet, usually on YouTube—gained increasing popularity, particularly since you don't need a monthly subscription to watch these shows. A number of hit web series, like Broad City and Drunk History, even got picked up by networks to be small screen shows. Since the barriers to entry are low—anyone with a phone can make or edit video—this platform allows people without Hollywood resources to put their creative efforts out there.

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The best horror—whether a book, TV show, or movie—holds a mirror up to society and forces us to look at ourselves, twisted but still recognizable. Jordan Peele's directorial debut, 2017's Get Out, was that kind of movie, showing us the horrifying secret behind a family of "nice" white people when their daughter brings home an African-American boyfriend. Peele, primarily known before the movie as a comedian, shocked everyone with his skill as a director, his dark sense of humor, and his ability to find—and probe—racial pressure points. And his 2019 follow-up effort Us shows that we can continue to expect great things from Peele.

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As things once considered "nerd culture" have moved into the mainstream, the tabletop role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons has seen a resurgence in popularity. It features prominently in Stranger Things, and actors such as Wil Wheaton, Vin Diesel, and Joe Manganiello are all proud to be players. The fifth edition of the game, released in 2014, streamlined many of D&D's mechanics and has proven immensely popular. The game can function as a method of storytelling, so a number of podcasts and web series—most notably, Critical Role—follow groups of players on their characters' adventures.

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Now that The Handmaid's Tale has been made into a television series—and certain aspects of the book seem more prescient than ever—Margaret Atwood should be on everyone's reading list. Her most recent book, 2019's The Testaments, is a long-awaited sequel to Handmaid's Tale, but Gilead isn't her only dystopian setting. Her MaddAddam trilogy—Oryx and Crake (2003), The Year of the Flood (2009), and MaddAddam (2013)—explores an apocalyptic future where genetic engineering and corporatization have spiraled out of control. Her stories are often dark, but never without hope—and we've been thankful to have her perspective for the past decade.

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Thus far, the 21st century could be called "the age of the zombies," with the undead creatures taking over contemporary entertainment, from World War Z to iZombie. But perhaps no piece of zombie pop culture has been more widespread than The Walking Dead, a comic book series that was turned into a TV show on AMC in 2010. The show is in its tenth season now, and for a time, it was the most watched show on the planet.

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Even if you know nothing about comic books or intellectual property rights, you've probably picked up on the fact that there has been an excess of Spider-Man movies in the past few years. Marvel sold the character's movie rights to Sony many years ago, and Sony had to keep making Spider-Man movies in order to maintain those rights. However, Sony finally agreed to share the rights with Marvel and Disney in 2015, allowing Spidey to join up with the Avengers for 2016's Captain America: Civil War and the Marvel movies that followed. In short, whether you're a Tom Holland fan or a Tobey Maguire admirer, Spider-Man fans have had more than enough to be thankful for when it comes to movie versions of their favorite superhero.

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Spider-Man actor Holland may not have saved the world when he lip-synced and danced to Rihanna's "Umbrella" on the show Lip Sync Battle in 2017, but he certainly became an internet sensation. A trained dancer, Holland began the performance by soft-shoeing to "Singin' in the Rain"… until the beat dropped and his suit came off to reveal a corset and fishnets. What followed, though, was no goofy drag routine between the excellent choreography and Holland's confidence, the number became an unexpectedly sexy performance that made you want to get up and dance yourself. The clip, which has been viewed more than 40 million times, is a complete blast to watch, and for that, we are thankful.


Soccer Facts: History and Timeline of Soccer

Soccer is the most popular sport in the world today. Also known as the 'global game', soccer has permeated all nations and has brought even warring-nations on a playing field. Let us go back to the history and timeline of this beautiful game, and get ourselves acquainted with the important moments of this 'beautiful game'.

Soccer is the most popular sport in the world today. Also known as the ‘global game’, soccer has permeated all nations and has brought even warring-nations on a playing field. Let us go back to the history and timeline of this beautiful game, and get ourselves acquainted with the important moments of this ‘beautiful game’.

Soccer is also known as football. For a European, football is also known as soccer! Games involving the kicking of a ball have been played in several countries throughout history. Soccer was played in China in the 2nd and 3rd century BC. Romans played it and different forms of soccer were played in medieval-Europe. Today, soccer is one of the most popular sport in the world, played by roughly 250 million people in over 200 countries. Let us take a look at some important events that have shaped the history of this sport.

Timeline

5000 – 1000 BC: Historians have pointed out that games resembling soccer were played in China, Egypt, Japan, and Greece in this period. There were no rules and the players aimed at kicking a ball made of animal skin into a net amidst a lot of pushing and elbowing. These games were played so that the players – most of whom were soldiers – were physically fit in the eventuality of a war. Although, these games more or less resembled soccer, the foundation for modern-day soccer was achieved when the Cambridge Rules were drawn-up in Cambridge University in 1848.

1857: The Sheffield Football Club was formed.
1862: John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised some rules for Soccer.
1863: The Football Association (The FA) was formed.
1867: Sheffield FA was formed.
1871: The Rugby Football Union was formed.
1872: The first official international football match took place between Scotland and England in Glasgow.
1886: The International Football Association Board (IFAB) was formed.
1888: William McGregor founded the world’s first football league in England.

1904: The Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international football body, was formed in Paris.
1913: The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the International Football Association Board.
1930: The First World Cup took place in Uruguay. Uruguay wins it.
1931: The professional soccer era started in Chile, Argentina and Uruguay.
1934: The World Cup took place in Italy. The host team won it.
1938: The World Cup took place in France. Italy won its second World Cup.
1940s: The World War interrupted the World Cup. The American countries played in local cups.
1940: The Xeneise Club opened it’s stadium.
1943: Professional soccer started in Mexico.
1948: Amateur soccer ended.
1950:The World Cup took place in Brazil. Uruguay won it.

1954: The World Cup took place in Switzerland. It was the first one with a sponsor. Germany wins it.
1958: The World Cup took place in Sweden. Brazil wins it with players such as Pele and Garrincha.
1959: The South American Confederation of Soccer approved a new inter-club cup.
1960: The Libertadores Cup was inaugurated. Real Madrid won against the Uruguayan team Penarol in the Intercontinental Club.
1962: The World Club took place in Chile. Fans watched Brazil win in TV for the first time.
1966: The World Cup took place in England. The host team won it. The Mexican goalkeeper Antonio Caravajal set a record for most participation in World Cups.
1970: The World Cup took place in Mexico. Brazil won it and became the country with most championships won.
1974: The World Cup took place in Germany. The fans watched the host team win on color TV.
1975: Independiente de Avellaneda won the Libertadores Cup for the fourth time.
1978: The World Cup took place in Argentina. Holland was the favorite to win. But the host team won it.
1979: Paraguay won a Copa America. Olimpia won the Intercontinental and Libertadores Cups.
1982: The World Cup took place in Spain. Italy won it. Countries from all continents played it. Maximum goals were scored.
1984: The new star Diego Maradona is transferred to the Italian team of Naples.
1986: The World Cup took place in Mexico. Argentina wins its second World Cup. Maradona scored the most amazing goal in the history of soccer.
1990: The World Cup took place in Italy. Germany won it.
1994: The World Cup took place in USA. Brazil won it.
1998: The World Cup took place in France. The host team won it.
1999: Mexico won the Confederations Cup.

2002: The World Cup took place in Japan and Korea. Brazil won it.
2005: Brazil won the Confederations Cup.
2006: The World Cup took place in Germany. Italy won it.
2007: David Beckham – one of the more popular stars in the world – made his debut in an American club, playing for the Los Angeles Galaxy.
2008: Spain beat Germany in the Euro Cup finals.
2010: World Cup was hosted for the first time on the African soil as the hosts South Africa played Mexico in the first match. It was Spain who lifted the coveted trophy defeating Holland in the finals.
2010: Russia and Qatar won the bids to host the FIFA World Cup in 2018 and 2022 respectively.
2011: Japan’s female soccer team defeated United States in the final of World Cup in Frankfurt.

These were some of the most important events in the history of soccer. With so much soccer being played nowadays from the club to the country level, it is the fans who feel delighted to see their favorite stars in action.


5 Nobel Prize-Winning Economic Theories You Should Know About

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel has been awarded 51 times to 84 Laureates who have researched and tested dozens of ground-breaking ideas.   Here are five prize-winning economic theories that you'll want to be familiar with. These are ideas you're likely to hear about in news stories because they apply to major aspects of our everyday lives.

1. Management of Common Pool Resources
In 2009, Indiana University political science professor, Elinor Ostrom, became the first woman to win the prize. She received it "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons."   Ostrom's research showed how groups work together to manage common resources such as water supplies, fish, lobster stocks, and pastures through collective property rights.   She showed that ecologist Garrett Hardin's prevailing theory of the "tragedy of the commons" is not the only possible outcome, or even the most likely outcome when people share a common resource.  

Hardin's theory says that common resources should be owned by the government or divided into privately owned lots to prevent the resources from becoming depleted through overuse. He said that each individual user will try to obtain maximum personal benefit from the resource to the detriment of later users.  

Ostrom showed that common-pool resources can be effectively managed collectively, without government or private control, as long as those using the resource are physically close to it and have a relationship with each other. Because outsiders and government agencies don't understand local conditions or norms, and lack relationships with the community, they may manage common resources poorly. By contrast, insiders who are given a say in resource management will self-police to ensure that all participants follow the community's rules.  

Learn more about Ostrom's prize-winning research in her 1990 book, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, and in her 1999 Science journal article, "Revisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges."    

2. Behavioral Economics
The 2002 prize went to psychologist Daniel Kahneman "for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty."   Kahneman showed that people do not always act out of rational self-interest, as the economic theory of expected utility maximization would predict. This concept is crucial to the field of study known as behavioral finance. Kahneman conducted his research with Amos Tversky, but Tversky was not eligible to receive the prize because he died in 1996 and the prize is not awarded posthumously.      

Kahneman and Tversky identified common cognitive biases that cause people to use faulty reasoning to make irrational decisions. These biases include the anchoring effect, the planning fallacy, and the illusion of control. Their article, "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk," is one of the most frequently cited in economics journals. Their award-winning prospect theory shows how people really make decisions in uncertain situations. We tend to use irrational guidelines such as perceived fairness and loss aversion, which are based on emotions, attitudes, and memories, not logic. For example, Kahneman and Tversky observed that we will expend more effort to save a few dollars on a small purchase than to save the same amount on a large purchase.  

Kahneman and Tversky also showed that people tend to use general rules, such as representativeness, to make judgments that contradict the laws of probability. For example, when given a description of a woman who is concerned about discrimination and asked if she is more likely to be a bank teller or a bank teller who is a feminist activist, people tend to assume she is the latter even though probability laws tell us she is much more likely to be the former.  

3. Asymmetric Information
In 2001, George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence, and Joseph E. Stiglitz won the prize "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information." The trio showed that economic models predicated on perfect information are often misguided because, in reality, one party to a transaction often has superior information, a phenomenon known as "information asymmetry."  

An understanding of information asymmetry has improved our understanding of how various types of markets really work and the importance of corporate transparency. Akerlof showed how information asymmetries in the used car market, where sellers know more than buyers about the quality of their vehicles, can create a market with numerous lemons (a concept known as "adverse selection").   A key publication related to this prize is Akerlof's 1970 journal article, "The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism."  

Spence's research focused on signaling, or how better-informed market participants can transmit information to lesser-informed participants. For example, he showed how job applicants can use educational attainment as a signal to prospective employers about their likely productivity and how corporations can signal their profitability to investors by issuing dividends.  

Stiglitz showed how insurance companies can learn which customers present a greater risk of incurring high expenses (a process he called "screening") by offering different combinations of deductibles and premiums.  

Today, these concepts are so widespread that we take them for granted, but when they were first developed, they were groundbreaking.

4. Game Theory
The academy awarded the 1994 prize to John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr., and Reinhard Selten "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games." The theory of non-cooperative games is a branch of the analysis of strategic interaction commonly known as "game theory." Non-cooperative games are those in which participants make non-binding agreements. Each participant bases his or her decisions on how he or she expects other participants to behave, without knowing how they will actually behave.  

One of Nash's major contributions was the Nash Equilibrium, a method for predicting the outcome of non-cooperative games based on equilibrium. Nash's 1950 doctoral dissertation, "Non-Cooperative Games," details his theory. The Nash Equilibrium expanded upon earlier research on two-player, zero-sum games.  

Selten applied Nash's findings to dynamic strategic interactions, and Harsanyi applied them to scenarios with incomplete information to help develop the field of information economics. Their contributions are widely used in economics, such as in the analysis of oligopoly and the theory of industrial organization, and have inspired new fields of research.  

5. Public Choice Theory
James M. Buchanan Jr. received the prize in 1986 "for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making."   Buchanan's major contributions to public choice theory bring together insights from political science and economics to explain how public-sector actors (e.g., politicians and bureaucrats) make decisions. He showed that, contrary to the conventional wisdom that public-sector actors act in the public's best interest (as "public servants"), politicians and bureaucrats tend to act in their own self-interest, just like private-sector actors (e.g., consumers and entrepreneurs).   He described his theory as "politics without romance."  

Using Buchanan's insights regarding the political process, human nature, and free markets, we can better understand the incentives that motivate political actors and better predict the results of political decision-making. We can then design fixed rules that are more likely to lead to desirable outcomes.  

For example, instead of allowing deficit spending, which political leaders are motivated to engage in because each program the government funds earns politicians support from a group of voters, we can impose a constitutional restraint on government spending, which benefits the general public by limiting the tax burden.  

Buchanan lays out his award-winning theory in a book he co-authored with Gordon Tullock in 1962, The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy.  

Honorable Mention: Black-Scholes Theorem

Robert Merton and Myron Scholes won the 1997 Nobel Prize in economics for the Black-Scholes theorem, a key concept in modern financial theory that is commonly used for valuing European options and employee stock options. Though the formula is complicated, investors can use an online options calculator to get its results by inputting an option's strike price, the underlying stock's price, the option's time to expiration, its volatility, and the market's risk-free interest rate.   Fischer Black also contributed to the theorem, but could not receive the prize because he passed away in 1995.  


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Baron de Coubertin gained recognition for his work promoting the Olympics. In 1910, former President Theodore Roosevelt, visiting France after a safari in Africa, made a point of visiting Coubertin, whom he admired for his love of athletics.

His influence on the institution he founded endures. The idea of the Olympics as an event filled not merely with athletics but great pageantry came from Pierre de Coubertin. So while the Games are, of course, held on a scale far more grand than anything he could have imagined, the opening ceremonies, parades, and fireworks are very much ​a part of his legacy.

Finally, it was also Coubertin who originated the idea that while the Olympics can instill national pride, the cooperation of the world's nations may promote peace and prevent conflict.


Watch the video: HIGHLIGHTS: FC Dallas vs. Sporting Kansas City. September 29, 2021 (December 2022).

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