Maximilian, Graf Baillet von Latour, 1737-1806

Maximilian, Graf Baillet von Latour, 1737-1806

Maximilian, Graf Baillet von Latour, 1737-1806

Maximilian, Graf Baillet von Latour (1737-1806) was an Austrian commander who served under the Archduke Charles on the Rhine front in 1796.

Latour was born at the Schloss Latour in Luxembourg. In 1755 he joined the Salm-Salm Infantry Regiment, ended up as Oberst of the regiment. He fought with the regiment at Kolin in 1757.

In 1782 he was promoted to Major General and in 1789 to Lieutenant General. He fought in the campaign in the Austrian Netherlands in 1793, and commanded a brigade at the Allied defeat at Fleurus (24 June 1794). In mid September he was forced away from Sprimont, as part of the general Austrian retreat to the Roer. On 18 September he was defeated at the battle of the Ourthe, briefly giving the French a chance to cut Clerfayt's army in half.

In 1795 he was part of Wurmser's army during the siege of Mannheim. He was transferred to Clerfayt's army on the west bank in time to take part in the Austrian victory on the Pfrimm (10 November 1795), and he commanded the left wing during the combat of Frankenthal (13-14 November 1795) which forced the French to retreat, and on 22 November Mannheim fell to the Austrians.

At the start of the Rhine campaign of 1796 Latour commanded the left wing of General Würmser's army on the Upper Rhine, spread out from Philippsburg to the Swiss border. By the time Moreau actually crossed the Rhine in late June, Wurmser had been summoned to Italy, leaving Latour in command of the entire force, but he agreed to subordinate himself to Archduke Charles.

The campaign didn't begin well for Latour. Moreau convinced him that he planned to cross the Rhine at Mannheim, and Latour moved his troops to that area. Moreau then crossed at Strasbourg, cutting Latour's army in two. He then turned north and defeated Latour at Renchen (26 June 1796) and Rastatt (5 July 1796). On the following day Archduke Charles arrived, but their combined force was then defeated at Ettlingen (9 July 1796).

Charles decided to retreat east to wards the Danube, to join up with Wartensleben, then retreating in front of the second French army, under Jourdan. His plan was to combine the two Austrian armies and then attack the most vulnerable of the French forces. By early August he was on the Danube, and Moreau was advancing on a wide front. Charles counterattacked, but although the battle of Neresheim was a partial success continued his retreat. Soon after this, Moreau crossed to the south bank of the Danube, obeying orders from Paris. Charles decided to turn north to deal with Jourdan, leaving Latour to keep Moreau pinned down in the south.

Latour didn't perform his task with much skill. He spread his troops thinly along the River Lech, allowing Moreau to defeat him at Friedberg (24 August 1796), with the loss of 4,000 prisoners. Moreau advanced into Bavaria, but to his north the Archduke had defeated Jourdan, who was retreating back to the Rhine. This left Moreau exposed to attack, but he continued to advance. Latour also learnt of the Archduke's successes, and decided to go onto the offensive. He sent his cavalry to attack the French left (combat of Langenbruck). Although the French won this battle, Moreau realised that he couldn't remain isolated in the south, and decided to move to Nuremberg, in an attempt to find Jourdan. By the time he got there Jourdan had already been forced to retreat further west. Moreau left his army dangerously stretched out around Neuburg, but Latour missed his chance and instead only carried out a small scale attack (combat of Zell, 14 September 1796), which ended in defeat. However he also sent Nauendorf along the north bank of the Danube, and Moreau realised that he could no longer linger on the Danube.

Latour continued to harass Moreau as he retreated, although again without much success. An attack on the French centre at Schussenreid (30 September 1796) was repulsed, and Latour then left his troops in an exposed position, confident that the French wouldn't attack. Moreau was a better commander than that, and on 2 October he won the battle of Biberach, inflicting 5,000 casualties on the 11,000 of Latour's troops that actually got involved. Even so, Moreau was forced to continue his retreat, and even after he finally reached the Rhine exposed himself to another attack. By now Archduke Charles was back in the south, having defeated Jourdan, and led a combined attack on the French at Emmendingen (19 October 1796). This was a partial Austrian victory, and it was followed by a similar result on 24 October (battle of Schliengen). These two battles finally convinced Moreau to retreat to the west bank of the Rhine, and he crossed over on 26 October.

On the same day Latour began a siege of the fortified camp at Kehl that would last until 10 January 1797. During this siege he repulsed a French sortie on 22 November and conducted his own attacks during December. Heavy rain almost forced him to abandon the siege, but he hung on, and Moreau eventually negotiated surrender terms and his troops moved back to the west bank.

Although Latour's performance in the campaign hadn't been that impressive, it had ended as an Austrian victory, and he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Maria Theresa Order as a result.

At the start of 1797 Archduke Charles was moved to Italy, to face Napoleon, and Latour replaced him. Vienna ordered him to spread his 100,000 men out along the Rhine front from Basle to Dusseldorf, and he took command on the southern half of the line, leaving Werneck to command on the Lower Rhine. Once again Moreau managed to convince Latour that he was planning to cross the river at Manheim, before crossing further to the south. Even so, this crossing almost ended in failure after General Sztaray came close to pushing the French back into the river before reinforcements arrived (battle of Diersheim, 20-21 April 1797). Moreau then turned north, expecting to fight Latour and Sztaray, but instead he was greeted with news of the Preliminary Peace of Leoben, which ended the fighting on the Rhine for the moment.

Latour was then appointed as General Commandant of Moravia-Silesia, before in 1805 becoming President of the Hofkriegsrat, the Austro-Hungarian military administration.

Maximilian's younger brother Ludwig also served in the military. To avoid confusion, Maximilian was know as Latour and his brother as Baillet.

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Maximilian Anton Karl, Count Baillet de Latour

Count Maximilian Anton Karl Baillet de Latour (French: Maximilien-Antoine-Charles-Joseph Comte de Baillet de Latour) (14 December 1737 – 22 July 1806) was an Austrian general during the French Revolutionary Wars.

Born at Latour Castle near Virton in the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium), he joined the Austrian Army in 1755 and distinguished himself in the Seven Years' War. In 1772 he married Charlotte-Sophie de Guérin de La Marche (d-1806) their son, Count Theodor Franz Baillet von Latour, was Austrian minister of war during the Revolutions of 1848, and was murdered during the Vienna Uprising. His brother, Count Ludwig Wilhelm Anton Baillet de Latour-Merlemont (1753–1836), was also a general in Austrian service, until 1810, when he resigned, and joined the Grande Armée of Napoleon.

Latour achieved the rank of a Generalmajor in 1782. In the course of the 1789 revolt that led to the proclamation of the autonomous United States of Belgium, Latour was elevated to the rank of a Feldmarschall-Leutnant. His troops held the Duchy of Luxembourg and played a significant role in regaining the rebellious provinces by the end of 1790, which earned him the Military Order of Maria Theresa. From 1792 onwards Latour fought as an Austrian commander in the Wars of the First and Second Coalition. In 1805 Emperor Francis I of Habsburg appointed him president of the Hofkriegsrat, Latour nevertheless died shortly afterwards in Vienna.

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COBENZL, Philipp vonJournal de mon voyage en France avec l’Empereur Joseph en 1777. Manuscript on paper. 92 pp. folio. Bound in late 18th century decorated boards. Accompanied with two contemporary engraved portraits of Joseph II.

The trip to France by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) was one of the most important and most famous royal voyages in the 18th century. The main purposes of the journey were the improvement of the relations between France and the Holy Roman Empire and the support of the shattered marriage between Louis XVI of France and Marie-Antoinette, Joseph’s sister. The trip began on April 1, 1777 at Vienna. The emperor travelled under the pseudonyme Count of Falkenstein and was accompanied by the Austrian general Joseph von Colloredo (1735-1818), the diplomat Ludovico, Count di Belgiojoso (1728-1801), the physician Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla (1728-1800) and Philipp von Cobenzl (1741-1810), the author of the present manuscript. The voyage led over Munich, Stuttgart, Strasbourg and Metz to Paris, and after a six week residence in the French metropolis back over Brest, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Toulon, Marseille, Geneve, Basel and Freiburg.

Joseph II was eager for knowledge on every aspect of the French Empire and not only visited the famous places of interest but especially hospitals, poorhouses, schools, fortifications, factories, shipyards and so on. He met many members of the royal family and the high nobility as well as bankers, writers, scientists and artists. The journey caused a sensation amongst the French population and many pamphlets and books had been published on it.

One of the most piquant tasks of the trip was certainly Joseph’s conversation with the royal couple concerning their marital duties. Since their wedding in 1770, the royal couple was unable to witness a descendant, so Joseph II asked them about the reasons for not having an offspring and gave them useful tips. The advices were apparently successful, since one year later the first of four royal children was born. On May 15, Cobenzl even mentions in the present diary a conversation between himself and the emperor referring to this delicate matter.

Joseph also kept a diary during the trip which is now in the National Archives of Austria. His diary and letters written during the journey were to date the only first hand accounts of the voyage. Again and again during the trip the emperor and his entourage spent some time autonomously, thus Cobenzl’s manuscript provides some important informations hitherto unknown. Two of the most important characters Cobenzl met independently were Benjamin Franklin and Jean Jacques Rousseau. To this day historians speculated wheter or not Joseph II could have met one or both of these highly important characters, eventually the present manuscript reveals the circumstances of both meetings and also a two-hour conversation between Cobenzl and Rousseau, demonstrating to Cobenzl the philosopher’s unique personality. Cobenzl independently met, among others, the Russian minister of education Ivan Shuvalov, the composer Christoph Willibald Gluck, the architects Victor Louis and Bertrand Garipuy, the mathematicians Nicolas de Condorcet and Charles Bossut, the economists Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours and Victor de Riquetti Marquis de Mirabeau, physicist Johann Jakob Hemmer, adventurer Maurice Benyovsky, and the collector and bibliophile Justin MacCarthy Reagh.

Cobenzl wrote his diary in the evenings shortly before going to bed. He mentioned the daily routine beginning with the compulsory church service, the visited places, the met persons and the leisure activities. Cobenzl gave many evaluations and sometimes described his experiences in great detail. Among the persons who left the most impression on him were Charles-Michel de l’Epée (founder of the first school for the deaf – Cobenzl describes his methods as „the most interesting thing in Paris I have seen“ ), naval constructor Antoine Groignard, philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau, Justin MacCarthy Reagh, Maurice Benyovszky, architect Victor Louis and the physicist and magician Nicolas-Philippe Ledru, known as Comus. Cobenzl gives detailed descriptions of his visits of the Hotel de Condé in Paris, the Savonnerie manufactory of carpets, the Congregation of the Good Shepherd in Toulouse, the Maison Carrée in Nimes, the porcelain manufactory of Sevres and the Grand Theatre in Bordeaux.

The diary further mentions some very interesting meetings namely magician Nicolas-Philippe Ledru, known as Comus, demonstrating some experiments and magical tricks which were such impressing that Cobenzl visited him twice, naval constructor Antoine Groignard presenting some of his ship models, geologist Horace-Benedict de Saussure showing some of his glacier drawings and performing electrical experiments, engraver Christian von Mechel presenting the beginnings of his book „La galerie electorale de Düsseldorf“, architect Victor Louis revealing his plans in lieu of the chateau Trompette, architect Bertrand Garipuy introducing his plan for a canal, painter Jean-Baptiste Greuze presenting his painting „La Malediction paternelle“, Claude-Henri Watelet showing the gardens on his island in the Seine river, Maurice Benyovszky narrating some of his adventures, the collector Justin MacCarthy Reagh presenting his famous book collection, the physicist Felice Fontana demonstrating some experiments, the architect Jacques Germain Soufflot presenting plans and models for the church of St. Genevieve which later became the Pantheon, the painter Hubert Robert presenting some of his landscape paintings, engineer Antoine-Joseph Loriot examining his famous mortar, inventor Jacques de Vaucanson presenting some of his machines and silk manufacturer Elisabeth Charrye, the wife of Philippe de Lasalle, introducing some of her husband’s technical inventions. In La Rochelle the emperor and his fellow travellers witnessed some early experiments with naval mines („torpille“), and Cobenzl compared their effects to those of a ‚Leyden jar‘. The diary also mentions a few several hours of conversations between the emperor and for example Etienne-Charles de Lomenie de Brienne, Jean-Joseph de Laborde, Pierre-Augustin Guys and Joseph von Haller.

Furthermore the manuscript reveals many interesting insights into the daily life and the leisure times of the high nobility. During the whole journey Joseph and his entourage visited quite a few theatre and opera performances. On several occasions Marie-Antoinette played billard and other games with members of the aristocracy. On the second evening in Paris the Queen sang an Italien aria for her brother, accompanied by a cembalo. On April 21 Gaetano Besozzi and Jean-Joseph Rudolphe performing a concert with several singers at Versailles. On April 24 Joseph II, Cobenzl, Henry Swinburne and David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield played jeu de paumes (a forerunner of tennis), on April 26 the emperor and his entourage visited a British horse race at the Plaine des Sablons and Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria played viol in a chamber music concert at Munich. Cobenzl also visited a coiffeur, bought a telescope and Alencon lace, among other things. While visiting the shipyards in Brest and Toulon, Joseph II and his fellow travellers inspecting the following French ships: HMS „Robust“ (1764), „Magnifique“ (1750), „Bretagne“ (1766), „Bizarre“ (1751) and „Languedoc“ (1766).

Joseph understood himself as a „servant“ of the state and felt obliged to the advancement of the common good. During the ten years in which Joseph was the sole ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy (1780–1790), he attempted to legislate a series of drastic reforms to remodel Austria in an ideal enlightened state. Paris was one of the centers of enlightment at that time and Joseph’s experiences during the present trip changed quite a few of his personal and political views. The present journey to France had some great impact on Joseph’s policy which is known today as Josephinism.

The present diary is an exceptional and highly important first hand account for one the most famous royal voyages in 18th-century Europe, providing unique insights into the French royal dynasty shortly before the French revolution and offering a wealth of information on many of the leading scientists, artists and aristocrats at that time.

Cobenzl’s yet unpublished diary represents the only source for a multitude of informations of Joseph’s famous voyage to France and therefore is of the utmost importance.

The present diary mentions meetings with numerous individuals including the following:

Aristocrats, statesmen and military men: Louis XVI of France (1754-1793), Marie Antoinette, Queen of France (1755-1793), Charles X of France (at that time duke of Artois – 1757-1836), Maximilian III Joseph von Bayern (1727-1777), Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (1727-1781), Etienne-Charles de Lomenie de Brienne (1727-1794), Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon Duc de Penthievre (1725-1793), Louis Antoine de Gontaut (1701-1788), Ivan Shuvalov (1727-1797 – only Cobenzl), Antoine-Jean-Marie Thevenard (1733-1815), Louis-Rene Levassor de Latouche Treville (1745-1804), Johann Karl Zinzendorf (1739-1813), Prince Frederick Adolf, Duke of Östergötland (1750-1803), Karl Friedrich von Baden (1728-1811), Carl von Ulm zu Erbach (1725-1781), Johann Friedrich Fridolin von Kageneck (1707-1783), Maximilian Augustinus Christoph von Rodt (Bishop of Constance 1717-1800), Josef Friedrich Wilhelm von Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1717-1798), Karl Friedrich von Baden (1728-1811), Wilhelm von Edelsheim (1737-1793), Louis René Édouard de Rohan-Guéméné (1734-1803), Louis-Joseph de Montmorency-Laval (1724-1808), Florimond Claude von Mercy-Argenteau (1727-1794), Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes (1719-1787), David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield (1727-1796), Maximilian Baillet von Latour (1737-1806), Christian von Vogelsang (?-1785), Florimond Claude von Mercy-Argenteau (1727-1794), Adam Franz von Hartig (1724-1783), Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil (1730-1807)

Bankers and merchants: Jean-Joseph de Laborde (banker to the king 1724-1794), Jacques Necker (1732-1804), Nicolas Beaujon (1718-1786), Johann Jakob Bethmann (1717-1792 – only Cobenzl), Pierre-Augustin Guys (1721-1799), Jean-Christophe Kick (Marseille), Ludwig Zeerleder I (1727-1792), Philipp Jakob Franck (1715-1780)

Musicians: Gaetano Besozzo (1727-1804), Jean Joseph Rudolphe (1730-1812), Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787 – only Cobenzl), Marie-Emmanuelle Bayon Louis (1746-1825 – only Cobenzl), Joseph Legros (1739-1793)

Artists and/or their ateliers: Jean-Antoine Houdon (sculpteur 1741-1828), Louis Jean Francois Lagrenée (1725-1805), Jean Honore Fragonard (1732-1799), Francois-Guillaume Menageot (1744-1816), Nicolas-Bernard Lepicie (1735-1784), Jean-Baptiste Huet (1745-1811), Joseph-Ferdinand-Francois Godefroy de Veaux (1729-1788), Jean Baptiste Leprince (1734-1781), Charles Monnet (1732-1808), Hugues Taraval (1729-1785), Louis Jean-Jacques Durameau (1733-1796), Joseph Siffred Duplessis (1725-1802), Charles-Louis Clerisseau (architect 1721-1820), Guillaume Coustou the Younger (1716-1777), Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne (1704-1778), Charles-Atoine Bridan (sculpteur 1730-1805), Felis Lecomte (sculpteur 1737-1817), Augustin Pajou (sculpteur 1730-1809), Jacques Germain Soufflot (architect 1713-1780), Claude-Henri Watelet (1718-1786), Hubert Robert (1733-1808), Jean-Baptiste Greuze (1725-1805), Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (architect 1736-1806), Victor Louis (architect 1731-1800 – only Cobenzl), Betrand Garipuy (architect 1748-1782 – only Cobenzl), Christian von Mechel (engraver and publisher 1737-1817)

Scientists: Felice Fontana (physicist 1730-1805), Louis Jean-Marie Daubenton (naturalist 1716-1800), Nicolas de Condorcet (mathematician 1743-1794 – only Cobenzl), Charles Bossut (mathematician 1730-1814 – only Cobenzl), Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (economist 1739-1817 – only Cobenzl), Victor de Riquetti Marquis de Mirabeau (economist 1715-1789 – only Cobenzl), Philibert Trudaine de Montigny (chemist and administrator 1733-1777), Claude de Bernieres (opticien and inventor of an unsinkable boat) Charles-Michel de l’Epée (founder of the first school for the deaf 1712-1789), Antoine-Joseph Loriot (engineer 1716-1782), Nicolas-Philippe Ledru known as COMUS (physicist and magician 1731-1807), Jacques de Vaucanson (inventor 1709-1782), Louis Antoine de Bougainville (explorer and admiral 1729-1811), Antoine Groignard (naval constructor 1727-1799), Horace-Benedict de Saussure (geologist and mountaineer 1740-1799), Michel Lullin de Chateauvieux (agronomist 1695-1781), Samuel Auguste Tissot (physician 1728-1797), Albrecht von Haller (naturalist, anatomist 1708-1777), Johann Jakob Hemmer (physicist and meteorologist 1733-1790 – only Cobenzl), Jean-Baptiste le Rond d’Alembert (mathematician and physicist 1717-1783)

Writers: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778 – only Cobenzl), Jean-Francois Marmontel (1723-1799), Jean-Francois de la Harpe (1739-1803), Charles Joseph de Ligne (1735-1814), Henry Swinburne (1743-1803)

Various individuals: Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790 – only Cobenzl), Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond Marquise du Deffan (hostess and patron of the arts 1697-1780), Madame du Barry (Maitresse of the king 1743-1793), Louise of France (princesse and Carmelite 1737-1787), Du Hamel (glasses maker), Maurice Benyovszky (adventurer 1746-1786), Marie Thérèse Louise of Savoy, Princesse de Lamballe (confidante of the Queen 1749-1792), Justin MacCarthy Reagh (collecter and bibliophile 1744-1812 – only Cobenzl), Elisabeth Charrye (-1817 – silk manufacturer and wife of Philippe de Lasalle), Marie Louise de la Tour d’Auvergne (1725-1793)

The following operas were visited:
Iphigenie en Aulide (Gluck) Alceste (Gluck), Les deu avares (Gretry), Tom Jones (Philidor), Orphée (Gluck), Zemire et Azor (Marmontel and Gretry), Alceste (Gluck), Cephale et Procris (Gretry), Les trois fermiers (Dezede)

The following theatre performances were visited:
Britannicus (Racine), Turcaret (Lesage), Castor et Pollux (Rameau), Brutus (Voltaire), Le Veuvage Trompeur (de la Place), Alzire (Voltaire), Les fausses infidelités (Barthe), Oedipe (Voltaire), Nicomede (Corneille), Nicomede (Corneille), Athalie (Racine), La Metromanie (Piron), Le peintre amoureux de son modele (Anseaume), Le Barbier de Seville (Beaumarchais)

The following places were visited:
Paris: Savonnerie manufactory of carpets, Court of Auditors, Palais de Justice, School of surgery, Hotel-Dieu, Hotel des Invalides, Ecole Militaire, Jardin des Plantes et le Cabinet d’histoire naturelle, Hotel de Condé, Academie des Sciences, Veterinary school, Machine de Marly, Pavillon of Madame du Barry, Le Cirque Royal (Vauxhall des boulevards), Champ de Mars, Basilica of St. Denis, the royal medal collection, Cabinet de physique et d’histoire naturelle du prince de Condé, Cabinet des tableaux de Pierre-Antoine Baudouin, Cabinet de physique du roi, Musée du Luxembourg
Metz: fortifications, military hospital, poorhouse
Brest: shipyard, marine school, fortifications, French East India company
Bordeaux: Grand theatre, Chateau Trompette, Palais Gallien
Toulouse: Canal de Brienne (only Cobenzl), Congregation du Bon Pasteur (only Cobenzl), Capitole de Toulouse (only Cobenzl), royal garden (only Cobenzl)
Montpellier: Hotel Saint-Come, hospital
Nimes: Maison Carrée, Arena of Nimes
Toulon: harbour, shipyard, orangeries
Marseille: infirmary and lazarett, stock exchange, coral factory (only Cobenzl), hat factory, satin factory
Lyon: silk factory
Freiburg im Breisgau: Karlskaserne, tax office (only Cobenzl), university, Jesuit college, military hospital, customs office (only Cobenzl)
Munich: galery at Schleissheim Palace, Nymphenburg Palace
Stuttgart: music college, ducal public library (today Württembergische Landesbibliothek), royal stud, State Academy of Fine Arts, Karlsschule, Castle Solitude
Strassburg: civil hospital, foundling house
Nancy: hospital
Verdun: ecole des mineurs
Sevres: porcelain manufactory

Bound at end are two manuscipt letters by the brother of Samuel Auguste Tissot, requesting financial help from Cobenzl according to difficult economic circumstances.

Update for November 2017 at Sulla's Second Civil War, Marshall Islands, German very heavy artillery, Wickes class destroyers, Napoleonic Austrian Generals Peninsular War, Bell aircraft

Update for November 2017 at Sulla's Second Civil War, Marshall Islands, German very heavy artillery, Wickes class destroyers, Napoleonic Austrian Generals Peninsular War, Bell aircraft

This month we finish our series of articles on Sulla's Second Civil War, and begin a new series on the Jugurthine War. In the Second World War we begin a series of articles on the invasion of the Marshall Islands, reaching the invasion of Kwajalein. In the Napoleonic period we post four new biographies of Austrian generals and begin a new series looking at the later stages of the Peninsular War.

Our series on artillery looks at the very heavy German artillery of the First World War, building up to 'Big Bertha' and the Gamma-Gerat. At sea we continue with our series on Wickes class destroyers. In the air we focus on Bell experimental aircraft.

The siege of Cirta (112 BC) saw Jugurtha win a brief Numidian civil war, but his actions after the fall of the city provoked a Roman intervention, which eventually ended his reign (Jugurthine War)

The battle of Faventia (82 BC) saw the total failure of an attempt by Carbo to launch a surprise attack on Sulla's commander in the north of Italy, Metellus Pius. Soon afterwards Carbo gave up the fight and fled to Africa, leaving the Marian cause almost leaderless in Italy (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of Placentia (82 BC) saw the Sullan commander Marcus Lucullus defeat a Marian army in the Po Valley, helping to end their command of Cisalpine Gaul.

The second battle of Clusium (82 BC) saw Pompey defeat the remnants of the army of the consul Carbo, after they had been abandoned by their commander (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of the Colline Gate (1 November 82 BC) saw a largely Samnite army come dangerously close to capturing Rome, taking advantage of the distraction caused by Sulla's Second Civil War.

The battle near Utica (81 BC) was a victory for a Sullan army led by the young Pompey over a Marian army led by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus.

The siege of Nola (to 80 BC) was an intermittent Roman attempt to recapture the city after it fell to the Samnites during the Social War, not ended until after Sulla's Second Civil War.

The siege of Norba (82 BC) was a minor incident during Sulla's Second Civil War, and saw the town hold out against Sulla's forces for some time after the anti-Sullan forces had been destroyed at the battle of the Colline Gate.

The Marshall Islands Campaign (31 January-22 February 1944) was the first time that the Americans captured pre-war Japanese territory, and was made up of two main parts - Operation Flintlock, the conquest of Kwajalein and Operation Catchpole, the conquest of Eniwetok.

Operation Flintlock (31 January-4 February 1944) was the first part of the American invasion of the Marshalls, and saw them conquer Kwajalein Atoll and Majuro, giving them a foothold in the central part of the islands.

The occupation of Carlson Island (31 January 1944) was part of the preliminary operations before the invasion of Kwajalein, and saw the Americans capture an island that they intended to use as an artillery base during the main battle (Operation Flintlock).

The occupation of Carlos Island (31 January 1944) was part of the preliminary operations before the invasion of Kwajalein, and saw the Americans capture an island that they intended to use as a supply dump to support the artillery on nearby Carlson Island.

The occupation of Carter Island (31 January 1944) was one of the first steps in the invasion of Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (Operation Flintlock).

The occupation of Cecil Island (31 January 1944) was one of the first steps in the invasion of Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands, and was achieved only after a false landing on the wrong island (Operation Flintlock).

The occupation of Chauncey Island (31 January-2 February 1944) began with an accidental landing on the island at the start of the invasion of Kwajalein, and was completed two days later.

The battle of Kwajalein (1-4 February 1944) saw the Americans capture the largest island in Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands after only four days of land fighting.

The 10.5cm leFH 18/40 was a wartime version of the leFH 18, produced in an attempt to lighten the otherwise satisfactory light field howitzer.

The 28cm Haubitz L/12 in Räderlafette was Krupp's first attempt to produce a mobile siege howitzer, and was an early stage in the development of the 42cm M-Gerät.

The 28cm Haubitz L/14 in Räderlafette was a larger version of the earlier 28cm Haubitz L/12, and was another step in the development of the famous 42cm M-Gerät.

The 30.5cm howitzer L/17 in Räderlafette or Beta i.R. was the first large calibre siege gun mounted on a wheeled carriage to be developed for the Germany army. The 28cm Haubitz L/14 in Räderlafette was a larger version of the earlier 28cm Haubitz L/12, and was another step in the development of the famous 42cm M-Gerät.

The 30.5cm howitzer L/17 in Räderlafette or Beta i.R. was the first large calibre siege gun mounted on a wheeled carriage to be developed for the Germany army.

The 30.5cm schwere Küstenmörser L/8 or Beta-Gerät was the first in a series of designs that eventually produced the famous 'Big Bertha' howitzers that played a part in the early German victories in 1914.

The 30.5cm schwerer Küstenmörser 09/ Beta-Gerät 09 was the second in a series of very heavy German guns designed to deal with strong French and Belgian fortifications, and was developed alongside the more famous 42cm gamma-gerät.

The 42cm kurze Marinekanon 12 or Gamma-Gerät was a very heavy siege howitzer that was potentially very effective, but that took too long to prepare for use, and as a result was less effective than the slightly lighter but more mobile M-Gerät.

The 42cm kurze Marinekanone 14 L/12 in Räderlafette (Short Naval Cannon 14 L/12), M-Gerät or 'Big Bertha' was a massive 420mm howitzer that played a major part in the German victories early in the First World War, but that slowly faded from significance as the war developed.

USS Ward (DD-139/ APD-16) was a Wickes class destroyer that fired the first shots of the Pacific War, and served as a fast transport before being sunk by a Kamikaze in 1944.

USS Claxton (DD-140)/ HMS Salisbury was a Wickes class destroyer that briefly served with the Neutrality Patrol in 1940 before joining the Royal Navy, where she was used for a variety of escort duties.

USS Yarnall (DD-143)/ HMS Lincoln was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the Neutrality Patrol then joined the Royal Navy for convoy escort duties, before ending up as a source of spare parts for the Soviet Navy.

USS Upshur (DD-144) was a Wickes class destroyer that served as a convoy escort ship in the Atlantic for most of the Second World War, and then as a plane guard and target ship in 1944-45.

USS Greer (DD-145) was a Wickes class destroyer that became famous as the first US warship to attack an Axis warship, several months before the official American entry into the Second World War.

USS Elliot (DD-146/ DMS-4/ AG-104) was a Wickes class destroyer that served as a minesweeper around Hawaii, and in the Aleutians, then served as a training ship for the rest of the Second World War.

Friedrich Josias, Graf von Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1737-1815, was the Austrian commander in the early stages of the Revolutionary Wars, but his early victories are often ignored because the campaign ended with the loss of the Austrian Netherlands.

Johann Joseph Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz (1766-1858) was one of the most significant Austrian generals of the Napoleonic Wars, and went on to extend the Austrian presence in Italy by two decades after his victory at Novara in 1849.

Maximilian, Graf Baillet von Latour (1737-1806) was an Austrian commander who served under the Archduke Charles on the Rhine front in 1796.

Johannes Joseph, Fürst zu Lichtenstein (1760-1836) was an Austrian cavalry commander who performed well in most of Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, before retiring after the defeat at Wagram.

The third British siege of Badajoz (16 March-6 April 1812) finally saw the city fall to Wellington's troops after two previous attacks had failed. However the final storm of the city was terribly costly, and was followed by a brutal sack that was one of the darkest incidents in the history of the British army.

The combat of Villagarcia (11 April 1812) was a clash between Drouet's 'corps of observation', watching the third siege of Badajoz, and a British cavalry force.

The Bell X-1 was an experimental rocket powered aircraft that was the first to breach the sound barrier in level flight.

The Bell X-2 was an experimental swept-wing rocket plane that was designed to explore the effects of flying at very high speeds above Mach 3, but both aircraft were lost before any significant work had been done.

The Bell X-5 was an experimental swept wing aircraft inspired by the wartime Messerschmitt P.1011.

The Bell X-14 was a jet powered VTOL aircraft that was used extensively for tests and experiments between 1957 and 1981.

The Bell L-39 was the designation given to two P-63 Kingcobras when they were given experimental swept wings.

The Convair X-6 was a design for a version of the massive B-36 that would have been powered by nuclear turbojet engines. It was abandoned at an early stage.

Kursk 1943 – The Southern Front, Robert Forczyk .

Looks at von Manstein's flank of the German attack during Operation Citadel, and suggests that one of the main reasons for the German failure was poor planning on their side, combined of course with the massively improved performance of the Red Army, and the repeated delays to the start of the offensive that allowed the Soviets to build three strong defensive lines and gather their reserves ready to deal with the threat. In individual clashes the Germans sometimes prevailed, but the overall campaign very quickly bogged down, and was cancelled after only eight days

The French Army at Verdun, Ian Sumner.

The battle of Verdun was the defining experience of the First World War for the French, and a huge proportion of the army took part the defence of the fortress city. This photographic study covers an impressively wide range of topics, from the muddy chaos of the front lines to the massive supply operation, with aerial photographs to give a dramatic overview of the impact of the fighting

British Battle Tanks - World War I to 1939, David Fletcher.

An excellent history of British tanks from the earliest developments, through the battles of the First World War and on into the post-war period. Strongest on the First World War tanks, which fill the first three quarters of the book, helping to explain the problems faced by the developers, how they coped with the problems of the battlefield and how the design was improved in the light of experience, making it clear that the tanks of 1918 were actually very different from the tanks of 1916, despite looking very similar

The Frost Weeds, Vietnam: 1964-1965, James Oliveri.

The memoirs of a conscripted radio operator who served in Vietnam just before the start of the main American intervention. The period and the nature of his work means that we thus get an account of the attempts to cooperate with the South Vietnamese, as well as tales of life in the isolated bases scattered across remote areas of the country. A useful memoir that covers a less familiar period of the war

Taranto 1940 - The Fleet Air Arm's precursor to Pearl Harbor, Angus Konstam.

A useful account of the Fleet Air Arm's most dramatic achievement of the Second World War, sinking three Italian battleships in harbour at Taranto a year before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. A good text that covers the complex series of wider operations that accompanied the raid on Taranto, along with a detailed account of the attack, and supported by some particularly useful 3D maps of the attack itself

Wellington’s Headquarters – The Command & Administration of the British Army during the Peninsular War, S.G.P. Ward.

A classic history of the administrative side of Wellington’s army in the Peninsular War, looking at the systems involved, the people who made them work and their relationship with the duke of Wellington. Demonstrates that Wellington largely worked within the existing system (even to the extent of not having much control of the staff officers under his command), while moulding it to suit his individual method of command

Germany Ascendant – The Eastern Front 1915, Prit Buttar.

Covers the key year on the Eastern Front of the First World War, a year that saw the Russians briefly threaten to invade Hungary, but ended with them pushed out of Poland, away from East Prussia and out of most of Austrian Galicia, after a series of battles that also established Germany's dominance over Austria. This was also the year in which the Central Powers successfully invaded Serbia, thus achieving Austro-Hungary's original war aim

With the German Guns - Four Years on the Western Front, Herbert Sulzbach.

The First World War diaries of a German war volunteer who went on to serve in the British Army during the Second World War. Sulzbach served in the artillery on the Western Front from 1914-1918, and took part in the great German offensives of 1918 as well as the final retreat. His diaries are thus an invaluable insight into the views of a reasonable, tolerant member of the German arms forces

U-Boats Beyond Biscay - Dönitz Looks to New Horizons, Bernard Edwards.

An account of selected exploits of the U-Boats operating away from the normal North Atlantic battle, looking at 1941-January 1943. Starts and ends at somewhat random points, and lacks much context, but within those limits the accounts of individual U-boat battles are good, with interesting material on the previous experiences of both the U-boats and merchant ships

Samurai Assassins - 'Dark Murder' and the Meiji restoration, 1853-1868, Romulus Hillsborough.

A fascinating study of one of the darker elements of the crisis that eventually led to the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate and the official restoration of Imperial rule, the use of assassination to eliminate the political supporters of the Shogunate, and later by supporters of the Shogun attempting to defend the status-quo. Somewhat ironically the opponents of the Shogunate got their way, only for the newly restored Imperial government to destroy the feudal world and with it the Samurai class

US Navy Light Cruisers 1941-45, Mark Stille.

Covers the five classes of US Navy light cruisers that saw service during the Second World War, with sections on their design, weaponry, radar, combat experience. Nicely organised, with the wartime service records separated out from the main text, so that the design history of the light cruisers flows nicely. Interesting to see how new roles had to be found for them, after other technology replaced them as reconnaissance aircraft

Hitler's Forgotten Flotillas - Kriegsmarine Security Forces, Lawrence Paterson.

Looks at the role played by smaller warships in the German war effort, covering minesweepers, patrol ships, mine layers, submarine hunters and fleet escort ships - the ships that fell between the fast 'E-boats' and larger destroyers and above. Combines good background information with a clear narrative framework of their activities and a good selection of accounts of individual engagements

Feldzeugmeister Count Maximilian Baillet de Latour

wax relief, depiction in uniform with the Military Order of Maria Theresa, with polychrome painted decoration, framed, behind glass, height 12 cm, with frame, 22 x 19.5 cm, c. 1800,(Lu)

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Latour, Maximilian

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Latour, Maximilian Graf Baillet de, Indexeintrag: Deutsche Biographie, [18.06.2021].

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Als Fähnrich begann L. 1755 im Infanterie- Rgt. Salm-Salm seine militärische Laufbahn, während der er es 1771 zum Oberst und Regimentsinhaber, 1783 zum Generalwachtmeister (Generalmajor), 1790 zum Generalfeldmarschalleutnant und 1796 zum Generalfeldzeugmeister bzw. General d. Kav. brachte. Im Siebenjährigen Krieg zeichnete er sich besonders bei Kolin (18.6.1757) aus. 1777 befehligte er ein Grenzkommando bei Wieliczka in der Nähe Krakaus. 1787 erfolgte seine Entsendung zur Niederschlagung der niederländ. Rebellion und die Übertragung des Oberkommandos in Flandern. Seit 1792 beteiligte sich L. an den ersten beiden Koalitionskriegen gegen Frankreich in den Niederlanden, am Rhein und in Süddeutschland er gehörte zu den engsten Mitarbeitern der jeweils kommandierenden Generale (von Albert von Sachsen-Teschen bis zu Erzhzg. Karl) und führte 1797 – etwa seit der Kapitulation der Festung Kehl bis zum Frieden von Campo Formio – die Rheinarmee. Seine ausschließlich an der Sache und am Dienst orientierte Haltung auch angesichts der Zerstörung seines Stammschlosses durch franz. Truppen 1794 blieb der Nachwelt als rühmliches Beispiel in Erinnerung. 1798 übernahm er die Leitung des Generalkommandos in Mähren und im österreichisch gebliebenen Teil Schlesiens (bis 1805).

Neben L. s militärischen Leistungen sind jene aus dem politischen Bereich hervorzuheben: Als Landmarschall der Stände seiner Heimat sicherte er 1788-94 dem Hause Habsburg die Provinz Luxemburg. Ende 1797 unterzeichnete er als österr. Bevollmächtigter auf dem Rastatter Kongreß mit Napoleon die Konvention, mit der die Abtretung der venetian. Provinzen an Österreich und die Räumung der linksrhein. Gebiete zugunsten Frankreichs durch die k. k. Truppen gemäß dem Frieden von Campo Formio (17.10.1797) eingeleitet wurden. Den Höhepunkt seiner Laufbahn bildete die Ernennung zum Präsidenten des österr. Hofkriegsrates am 7.4.1805. Sie stellte zugleich die letzte Anerkennung seiner vielfältigen, durch äußerste Pflichttreue charakterisierten fünfzigjährigen Dienste für vier Kaiser dar.|


Großkreuz d. Mil. -Maria-Theresien-Ordens
Wirkl. Geh. Rat.



Galérie de portraits historiques contenant des biographies interessantes des hommes de 18. siècle II, 1807, S. 57
Lith. v. A. Machek in: J. Ritter v. Rittersberg, Biogrr. d. ausgezeichnetsten verstorbenen u. lebenden Feldherren d. k. k. österr. Armee aus d. Epoche d. Feldzüge 1788-1821, 1828, S. 17.


Empfohlene Zitierweise

Neuhaus, Helmut, "Latour, Maximilian Graf Baillet de" in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 13 (1982), S. 683 [Online-Version] URL:


Latour: Maximilian , Graf Baillet von L. , k. k. General der Cavallerie, aus einem alten niederländischen Geschlechte, geb. 1737 auf dem nächst Virton gelegenen Familienschlosse Latour, war ein durch Regententreue, kriegerische Begabung, festen beharrlichen Willen und gewandte Truppenführung hervorragender Militär. Er diente 1755—1782, vom Fähnrich bis zum Obersten im k. k. Infanterieregimente Salm-Salm, jetzt Nr. 14, nahm in den Reihen dieser Truppe an den Kämpfen des 7jährigen Krieges Theil und focht schon am 18. Juni 1757 bei Kollin mit solcher Bravour, daß hierfür dessen vorzugsweise Ernennung zum Grenadierhauptmann erfolgte. — 1782 zum Generalmajor befördert, erntete er als Commandant von Wieliczka für sein militärisch-politisch kluges Verhalten an der damaligen Landesgrenze in einem eigenhändigen Schreiben Kaiser Josephs II. vollste Anerkennung. — 1787 traf ihn die Bestimmung nach den österreichischen Niederlanden, 1788 erhob ihn kaiserliches Vertrauen auf den Posten des Landmarschalls im Luxemburgischen. Kräftig und entschieden für des Landes Wohl eintretend, gelang es ihm 1789 das gesinnungstüchtige Luxemburg mit wenigen Truppen und einem Theile der einheimischen Landwehr gegen die Absichten der aufrührerischen Belgier zu decken und Luxemburg dem Kaiser zu erhalten. Noch in diesem Jahre avancirte L. zum Feldmarschall-Lieutenant und Inhaber des Dragonerregiments, jetzt Nr. 14. Der L. hiemit gegebene größere Wirkungskreis förderte seine Leistungsfähigkeit er lenkte 1790 bei der Vorrückung nach Belgien eine große Zahl Kämpfe stets mit Umsicht und Erfolg und wurde, nachdem er Namur, Mons, le Gand, Bourges, Ostende unterworfen, mit dem Ritterkreuze des schwer zu erringenden Militär-Maria-Theresien-Ordens ausgezeichnet, sowie zum Commandanten in Flandern ernannt. — 1792 stand L. schon wieder im Feuer er befehligte den rechten Flügel der kaiserlichen Truppen, nahm Launoy, Orchies, St. Amand, ermöglichte so die Belagerung von Lille, entriß Dumouriez' Magazine und vollführte nach der Schlacht bei Jemappes, an welcher er nicht betheiligt gewesen, mit seinen sehr zerstreut postirt gewesenen Truppen ohne irgend einen Verlust den geschickt geleiteten Rückzug bis zur Vereinigung mit Clerfayt. Nicht minder verdienstvoll war Latour's Antheil als Commandant des rechten Flügels der kaiserlichen Armee im Feldzuge 1793, während welchem er namentlich durch den Sieg bei Roermond am 1. März die Franzosen bis zum Rückzuge nach Tirlemont veranlaßte, deren Magazine nahm, später die Verbindung Namur's mit Dumouriez unterbrach und durch die Blockirung von Maubeuge die Belagerung von Valenciennes deckte. — 1794 fiel dem durch glühenden Eifer und noch sich steigernde Thatkraft hervorleuchtenden L. die Ehre der Erstürmung des befestigten Lagers bei Landrecy am 20. April zu scharfen Blick und kühnes Handeln bewies er ferner als Colonnenführer bei Charleroi am 3. und 16. Juni bei Fleurus am 26. Juni endlich führte er mit überwältigendem Erfolge das erste Infauterietreffen gegen den Feind. Beispiellos unerschütterlich in Pflicht und Treue blieb L. , als die ihm vom Gegner angekündigte Zerstörung seines Stammschlosses zur Ausführung kam. Die Verleihung des Commandeurkreuzes des Militär-Maria-Theresien-Ordens ehrte öffentlich sein Wirken. In dem nun folgenden Feldzuge 1795, als die Besetzung Mannheims durch die Franzosen einen Durchbruch der Stellung am Rhein und Neckar möglich machte, warf L. überlegen manövrirend die Republikaner in einer Reihe von Gefechten bis hinter die Queich und dann an den Pfriem, nahm Worms, vertrieb trotz Abrathens von diesem gefährlichen Unternehmen Pichegru aus seiner günstigen Position am Frankenthalbache, und nöthigte durch den Sieg bei Frankenthal am 14. November den Gegner zum Rückzug bis hinter den Speierbach. Nachdem er noch im December die Absicht der Franzosen verhinderte, über Kaiserslautern die Verbindung zu nehmen, erhob ihn das Capitel des Militär-Maria-Theresien-Ordens in Würdigung seiner Kühnheit und Intelligenz zum Großkreuz dieses Ordens. — 1796 übernahm L. unter Erzherzog Karl die durch Absendung von Truppen nach Italien geschwächte Armee Wurmser's, mit welcher er nach vergeblichen Versuchen des Widerstandes bis an den Neckar weichen mußte unverzagt stellte er sich immer wieder dem Gegner und bewies bei Biberach am 2. October, als er von den an Zahl übermächtigen Franzosen geschlagen worden war, welch' wirksamen Einstich er auf die Disciplin und den Geist seiner Truppe zu nehmen wußte. Seine hierauf mit Nachdruck und bewundernswerther Vorsicht mitten im Winter während 7 Wochen geleitete Belagerung Kehl's errang ihm das schwer verdiente, kaiserliche Lob. Nach der Kapitulation Kehl's am 10. Januar 1797 führte L. das Commando der Rheinarmee bis zum Frieden von Campo Formio, worauf er zum commandirenden General in Mähren und Schlesien und 1805 zum Hofkriegsraths-Präsidenten ernannt wurde. Leider konnte dieser kriegserfahrene, pflichttreue und selbstverleugnend ausdauernde General nur kurze Zeit in diesem Wirkungskreise für das Wohl des Heeres thätig sein, denn er starb bereits am 22. Juli 1806.

Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon d. Kaiserth. Oesterreich, 1. Bd., Wien 1856. Hirtenfeld, Der Militär-Maria-Theresien-Orden etc., Wien 1857. Die Hofkriegsraths-Präsid. und Kriegsminister d. k. k. Arm., Wien 1874. Ritter von Rittersberg, Biographien der ausgezeichnetsten Feldherren d. k. k. österr. Armee, Prag 1828. Schweigerd, Oesterreichs Helden und Heerführer. 3. Bd., Wien 1854. Guillaume, Hist. des régim. nationaux des Pays-Bas etc. Bruxelles 1877. Oesterr. milit. Zeitschrift, Wien, Jahrg. 1811. 1812. 1813. 1818. 1820. 1827. 1831—1833. 1835. 1845. EH. Carl, Feldzug von 1794 und 1795 (Streffl. öst. milit. Ztschr.). Wien 1862. EH. Carl. Grundsätze der Strategie etc. (Streffl. öst. milit. Ztschr., Wien 1862.) Gräffer, Kurze Geschichte der k. k. Regimenter etc., 2. Bd. Wien 1801.

Feldzeugmeister Maximilian Graf Baillet de Latour mit seiner Gemahlin Charlotte,

Wachsbossierung, Darstellung in Uniform mit dem Militär-Maria Theresien-Orden, farbig staffiert, gerahmt, verglast, 14 x 17 cm, mit Rahmen 23 x 27 cm, um 1800, (Lu)

Feldzeugmeister Maximilian Graf Baillet de Latour (1737-1806) mit seiner Gemahlin Charlotte geb. Gräfin Guerin de la Marche.

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Theodor Baillet de Latour

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Latour Theodor Graf Baillet von, * 15. Juni 1780 Linz, † 6. Oktober 1848 (Opfer einer Lynchjustiz) Wien 1, Am Hof, Sohn des Generals der Kavallerie und Präsidenten des Hofkriegsrats Maximilian Graf Baillet von Latour (1737–1806), Feldzeugmeister, Kriegsminister. Trat früh in die österreichische Armee ein und zeichnete sich während der Befreiungskriege aus wurde 1815 General, 1846 Feldzeugmeister und im April 1848 Kriegsminister in der konstitutionellen Regierung, in der er der einzige Vertreter der äußersten Rechten war. Als er die Aktionen von Jellacic in Ungarn (gegen die Aufständischen unter Kossuth) durch die Entsendung eines Wiener Grenadierbataillons unterstützen wollte, meuterte dieses vor seinem Abmarsch in der Gumpendorfer Kaserne und löste dadurch die Oktoberrevolution 1848 aus. Die Aufständischen stürmten das Kriegsministerium und übten an Latour Lynchjustiz. Dies bot Anlass für die hart durchgreifende Gegenrevolution (Windisch-Graetz). Latour wohnte 1848 im Haus 7, Karl-Schweighofer-Gasse 5.

Maximilian Graf Baillet de Latour General Feldzeugmeister (1737-1806)

(Remerciements à Bruno Nackaerts)

M aximilian Baillet de Latour nait le 14 décembre 1737, au château de Latour, dans une famille de vieille noblesse, qui, dès le 15e siècle, a donné aux ducs de Bourgogne, puis aux monarchies espagnoles et autrichiennes, des militaires et des fonctionnaires civils.

Il entre comme enseigne, en 1755, au régiment Salm-Salm Il est promu capitaine après la bataille de Collin, en 1757, durant la guerre de Sept-Ans. Il est ensuite Major en 1767, lieutenant-colonel en 1769, colonel en 1762.

En 1777, il commande un corps à Wicliczka, en Pologne et sa bonne conduite lui vaut une lettre autographe de félicitations de l’empereur Joseph II.

En 1722, il est General Major. En 1787, alors qu&rsquoil exerce son commandement en Carinthie, il est envoyé combattre le soulèvement dans les Pays-Bas. Pour ses services, Joseph II le nomme en 1790 Feldmarschallieutnant et « propriétaire » (Inhaber) du régiment de dragons d&rsquoUrcel, le célèbre « dragons de Latour »

Pendant les combats multipliés que se livrent alors les patriotes belges et les troupes impériales, combats qui aboutissent, en moins d&rsquoune année, au rétablissement des autorités autrichiennes en Belgique, le comte de Baillet défend énergiquement la ligne de la Meuse, entre Givet et Namur. Il fait évacuer le Limbourg, s’empare de la citadelle de Namur, puis de Mons, enfin amène la soumission de Gand, de Bruges, d&rsquoOstende et conserve le commandement de la Flandre jusqu&rsquoau début de la révolution française.

Baillet de Latour est alors chargé du commandement de l&rsquoaile droite de l&rsquoarmée du duc de Saxe-Teschen. Prenant l&rsquooffensive, il s’empare de Lannoy, d&rsquoOrchies (15 juillet 1792), de Saint-Amand, dont il fait les garnisons prisonnières. Il tient le général Dumouriez en échec, pendant trois mois, dans son camp retranché de Maulde, le chasse enfin de cette position, le poursuit sans relâche et s’empare de tous ses magasins. Il assiste ensuite au bombardement de Lille et, après la levée du siége (25 septembre – 8 octobre 1792), il défend la Flandre jusqu&rsquoà ce que la perte de la bataille de Jemmapes(6 novembre 1792) oblige l&rsquoarmée autrichienne à opérer sa retraite derrière la Roer.

En 1793, le prince de Cobourg reprend l&rsquooffensive contre les Français. Le comte de Baillet a pour mission de couvrir le flanc droit de l&rsquoarmée impériale il s’empare de Stephanswert, s&rsquoavance jusqu&rsquoà Ruremonde, bat le général français La Mortière, s’empara de la ville et des magasins considérables qu&rsquoelle renferme, traverse audacieusement la Meuse et pousse ses …… Reichen.

Il reçoit alors du prince de Cobourg l&rsquoordre de se mettre à la tête du corps d&rsquoarmée qui a été assemblé à Liège : il doit protéger le flanc gauche de l&rsquoarmée principale et chasser l&rsquoennemi de Namur. Il exécute ce programme de point en point : après avoir repoussé les républicains de Huy, il culbute partout l&rsquoennemi, lui coupe toute communication avec l&rsquoarmée de Dumouriez et entre dans Namur. Les Français sont poursuivis jusqu&rsquoà Charleroi et doivent renoncer à la ligne de la Sambre et de la Meuse.

Après ces succès, Baillet pénètre dans le Hainaut français, s&rsquoavance jusqu&rsquoà Maubeuge et, par l&rsquohabileté de ses manoeuvres, parvient à maintenir l&rsquoennemi en échec pendant les opérations de l&rsquoarmée principale, qui assiége Condé )8 avril – 12 juillet 1793) et Valenciennes (25 mai – 27 juillet 1793) enfin il mit le blocus devant Maëstricht..

L&rsquoannée suivante, Baillet reçoit le commandement des troupes impériales de l&rsquoarmée austro-hollandaise du prince d&rsquoOrange, il attaque le camp retranché de Landrecies. Malgré la défense opiniâtre des Français, il emporta cette position sous les yeux de l&rsquoEmpereur et commence le siège de la place, qui est forcée de capituler au bout de dix jours (21-30 avril 1794). 2.000 tués ou blessés. 5.000 prisonniers, soixante-dix huit pièces d&rsquoartillerie et des approvisionnements considérables sont le résultat de cette victoire.

Le chef des troupes républicaines croit devoir venger la prise de Landrecies sur les propriétés du vainqueur : il fait incendier le château de Latour. Le comte de Baillet se venge à son tour, mais de façon plus noble : il offre au comte de Kaunitz, qui avait été refoulé de Thuin et de Merbes-le-Château jusqu&rsquoà Rouvroy, d&rsquoattaquer l&rsquoennemi il remporte sur l&rsquoarmée française, qu&rsquoil rejette de l&rsquoautre côté de la Sambre, une victoire éclatante qui a pour conséquence importante de sauver Mons et d’empêcher le général Jourdan de séparer les deux ailes de l&rsquoarmée impériale.

Peu de temps après, Baillet attaque les Français à Forchies Lamarche et Fontaine-l&rsquoevêque, les défait et, grâce à ses manoeuvres habiles, délivre Charleroi (3 juin 1794). Mais les Français, ayant reçu des renforts, reprend l&rsquooffensive et assiége de nouveau cette place. Baillet attaque les villages d&rsquoOignies et d&rsquoHeppignies, force tous les retranchements des républicains, s&rsquoy maintient avec opiniâtreté et amène de nouveau la délivrance de Charleroi (19-25 juin 1794). Il couvre ensuite la retraite de l&rsquoarmée du prince d&rsquoOrange : sa vigilance, son activité et son énergie assurent le succès de cette opération dangereuse.

Pendant l&rsquoannée 1795, Baillet reçoit le commandement d&rsquoun corps posté entre le Main et le Neckar, puis de celui de l&rsquoarmée stationnée sur le Haut-Rhin. Il passe ce fleuve avec quatorze bataillons et quarante escadrons, seconde les opérations du général Clerfayt sur le Pfrim et s’empare de Frankenthal.

Baillet défend ensuite cette position contre les attaques du général Pichegru, chasse les républicains de la position d&rsquoOggersheim, les poursuit jusqu&rsquoà la Queich, occupe Spire et fait lever le siége de Manheim (19 octobre -22 novembre 1795)

Les services éminents du comte de Baillet durant cette campagne, sont récompensés par le grade de général d&rsquoartillerie et la grand&rsquocroix de l&rsquoOrdre de Marie-Thérèse.

Après avoir remplacé provisoirement le général Wurmser dans le commandement de l&rsquoarmée du Haut-Rhin, le comte de Baillet est chargé de couvrir le Lech et le Tyrol avec un corps de vingt bataillons et trente escadrons. Malgré l&rsquoinfériorité numérique des forces qu&rsquoil peut opposer à l&rsquoarmée du général Moreau, sur la frontière du Tyrol au Danube, il parvient à contenir les Français, puis il reprend l&rsquooffensive, grâce aux succès que l&rsquoarchiduc Charles avait remportés à Amberg (24 août 1796) et Würzbourg (3 septembre 1796), les repousse jusqu&rsquoà Ulm, terminant la campagne par le siège et la prise de la forteresse de Kehl (10 novembre 1796 – 9 janvier 1797), défendue par le général Desaix.

Après la signature du traité de CampoFormio, le comte de Baillot est nommé plénipotentiaire pour l&rsquoAutriche au congrès de Rastadt. Il exerce ensuite, pendant six années le commandement en chef dans le margraviat de Moravie et dans la Silésie autrichienne enfin il est appelé à la dignité de président du conseil aulique de guerre. Il meurt le 22 juillet 1806, à Vienne


1719: Im blauen Schilde ein goldenes schwellendes Segel, welches an einem querliegenden goldenen Stabe herabhängt. Auf der Grafenkrone erhebt sich ein Helm, aus welchem der rechtssehende Kopf eines Tieres mit dem Halse emporwächst. Die Helmdecken sind blau und golden, und den Schild halten zwei auswärtssehende schwarze Adler. So ergeben ältere Lackdrücke, welche mit Fahnen und zahlreichen Armaturen umgeben sind das Wappen, und so findet sich auch dasselbe, doch ohne Helmschmuck, im Wappenbuche der österreichischen Monarchie (Band IV, 48, Band XVIII des genannten Werkes gibt in Tab. 3 den Schild der Länge nach geteilt an). Rechts stehen in Silber drei (2 und 1) schwarze Mohnköpfe an langen, mit zwei grünen Blättern versehenen Stielen, links in Blau hängt von drei goldenen Ringen an goldenem Stabe ein goldenes schwellendes Segel herab. Den Schild deckt eine 7-perlige Marquisenkrone.

Das Genealogische Taschenbuch der gräflichen Häuser nimmt in Blau ein goldenes, schwellendes Segel an, welches an fünf goldenen Ringen von einem dergleichen querliegenden Stabe herabhängt. [4]

Theodor Graf von Latour 1834

Watch the video: Pièces de clavecin, Book 1: La Courteille, Air (January 2022).

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