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10 November 1940

10 November 1940


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10 November 1940

Greece

Italian attack across the River Kalamas is repulsed

French Empire

Libreville (Gabon) surrenders to the Free French

Mediterranean

It is announced that aircraft from the Ark Royal have attacks Cagliari, Sardinia

War at Sea

The British submarine H 49 is considered to be lost

War in the Air

RAF attacks Boulogne and Calais

Luftwaffe carries out heavy day and night raids on Britain



10 November 1940 - History

What were the two sides in World War Two?

The war was fought chiefly between two major alliances: the Axis and the Allies.

Who was on which side in WW2?
Who was involved in World War 2?

Below is a list of the countries that fought in the war and the side they were on.

Slovakia (Nov. 1940)
Hungary (Nov. 1940)
Romania (Nov. 1940)
Bulgaria (March 1941)

  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • China
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • France
  • Greece
  • India
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Malta
  • The Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • South Africa
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • USSR
  • Yugoslavia

The Tripartite Pact of September 27, 1940, allied (brought together) Germany, Italy, and Japan.

  • Commonwealth countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada
  • Countries in the British Empire such as India.

© Copyright - please read
All the materials on these pages are free for homework and classroom use only. You may not redistribute, sell or place the content of this page on any other website or blog without written permission from the author Mandy Barrow.

120 Years of Literacy

Literacy from 1870 to 1979:

Excerpts are taken from Chapter 1 of 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait (Edited by Tom Snyder, National Center for Education Statistics, 1993).

Overview

This section, Historical Data, presents information from 1869-70-the date of the first Office of Education report-to the late 1970s on. The creation of the Federal Department of Education in 1867 highlighted the importance of education. The Act of 1867 directed the Department of Education to collect and report the "condition and progress of education" in annual reports to Congress. In the first report of 1870, the Commissioner proudly reported that nearly 7 million children were enrolled in elementary schools and 80,000 were enrolled in secondary schools. Also some 9,000 college degrees had been awarded. This contrasts with 1990, when 30 million enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools and 11 million enrolled in secondary schools. Over 1.5 million bachelor's and higher degrees were awarded.

What path has American education taken from such modest beginnings to such an impressive present? These and other questions prompted the Office of Educational Research and Improvement to review historical data and report on historical education statistics. This publication presents information from the first Office of Education report for 1869-70 to current day studies. It charts the development of the U.S. education enterprise from its past to the present day, pointing towards its future.

Educational Characteristics of the Population

One of the important determinants of the scope of an education system is the size of the population base. Changes in the birth rates and consequential shifts in the population profoundly influence society for decades as larger or smaller groups (birth cohorts) move through school, adulthood, work force, and finally into retirement. Larger birth cohorts can cause pressure for building schools, hiring more teachers and expanding medical services reduced cohorts can have the opposite effect. During the historical period covered by this publication, there have been several of these population expansions and contractions that have impacted on public school systems.

The early years of the United States were marked by very rapid population growth. Between 1790 and 1860 the U.S. population grew by about a third each decade. This rate of growth is more than 3 times the population growth that has occurred in the past decade. These rises occurred despite the declines in the birth rate during the 19th century. Increases in immigration and in the number of women of child-bearing age apparently compensated for the birth rate declines.

In the last decade of the 19th century, the population growth rate fell to 22 percent and the drops continued into the first 2 decades of the 20th century. The 1920s marked a period of shifts in the population outlook. The birth rate continued to fall, dropping from 118 per 1,000 women 15 to 44-years-old in 1920 to 89 in 1930. But also, the actual number of births fell by 11 percent during the 1920s, marking a divergence from the relative stability of the teens. The decline in the birth rates stabilized during the 1930s, and then rose dramatically following World War II, reaching a peak of 123 births per 1,000 women in 1957. This post-war birth rate was nearly as high as those registered in the early teens. After this peak of the "baby boom," birth rates resumed their historical decline. The low points in birth rates so far this century were in 1984 and in 1986, when there were 65 births per 1,000 women. The U.S. is now experiencing a surge in the number of births caused by the large number of "baby boomers" at child-bearing age. The 4.1 million births in 1991 is nearly as high as the peak of 4.3 million in 1957.

The number of births and the population size are important determinants of the scope of the school system. But the relative size of the school-age population is also an important consideration when examining the impact of the cost of education on the adult population. In 1870, about 35 percent of the population was 5- to 17-years-old. This proportion fell rapidly to 28 percent at the turn of the century, but further changes in the beginning of the century were very small. In the 1930s, the percentage of 5- to 17-years-olds in the population began to decline, reaching a low point of 20 percent in 1947. During the late 1960s, the proportion of 5- to 17-year-olds rose to 26 percent. However, this proportion has fallen in recent years, hitting 18 percent in 1991. Thus, the proportion of the population requiring elementary and secondary school services is at or near a record low level. Given the recent rises in births, significant decreases in this proportion are not anticipated for the near future.

Enrollment Rates

The proportion of young people enrolled in school remained relatively low in the last half of the 19th century. Although enrollment rates fluctuated, roughly half of all 5- to 19-year-olds enrolled in school. Rates for males and females were roughly similar throughout the period, but rates for blacks were much lower than for whites. Prior to the emancipation of Southern blacks, school enrollment for blacks largely was limited to only a small number in Northern states. Following the Civil War, enrollment rates for blacks rose rapidly from 10 percent in 1870 to 34 percent in 1880.

However, in the ensuing 20 years there was essentially no change in the enrollment rates for blacks and the rate for whites actually fell. The beginning of the 20th century brought sustained increases in enrollment rates for both white and minority children. The overall enrollment rates for 5- to 19-year-olds rose from 51 percent in 1900 to 75 percent in 1940. The difference in the white and black enrollment rates narrowed from 23 points in 1900 to 7 points in 1940.

Enrollment rates continued to rise in the post-war period for all race groups. By the early 1970s, enrollment rates for both whites and blacks had risen to about 90 percent and these rates have remained relatively stable since then. In 1991, the enrollment rate for 5- to 19-year-olds was 93 percent for blacks, whites, males, and females.

While the enrollment rates for children of elementary school age have not shown major changes during the past 20 years, there have been some increases for younger students as well as for those persons attending high school and college. The enrollment rate for 7- to 13-year-olds has been 99 percent or better since the late 1940s, but the rate for the 14- to 17-year-olds has exhibited significant increases since that period. During the 1950s, the enrollment rate of 14- to 17-year-olds rose from 83 percent to 90 percent.

Further increases during the 1960s and 1980s brought the enrollment rate to a high of 96 percent by the late 1980s. The rates for 5- and 6-year-olds also rose, from 58 percent in 1950 to 95 percent in 1991. Rates those of college-age doubled or tripled throughout the 1950 to 1991 period, with much of the increase occurring during the 1980s. In 1950, only 30 percent of 18- and 19-year-olds were enrolled in school, compared to 60 percent in 1991. The rate for 20- to 24-year-olds rose from 9 percent in 1950 to 30 percent in 1990.

Educational Attainment

The increasing rates of school attendance have been reflected in rising proportions of adults completing high school and college. Progressively fewer adults have limited their education to completion of the 8th grade which was typical in the early part of the century. In 1940, more than half of the U.S. population had completed no more than an eighth grade education. Only 6 percent of males and 4 percent of females had completed 4 years of college. The median years of school attained by the adult population, 25 years old and over, had registered only a scant rise from 8.1 to 8.6 years over a 30 year period from 1910 to 1940.

During the 1940s and 1950s, the more highly educated younger cohorts began to make their mark on the average for the entire adult population. More than half of the young adults of the 1940s and 1950s completed high school and the median educational attainment of 25- to 29-years-olds rose to 12 years. By 1960, 42 percent of males, 25 years old and over, still had completed no more than the eighth grade, but 40 percent had completed high school and 10 percent had completed 4 years of college. The corresponding proportion for women completing high school was about the same, but the proportion completing college was somewhat lower.

During the 1960s, there was a rise in the educational attainment of young adults, particularly for blacks. Between 1960 and 1970, the median years of school completed by black males, 25- to 29-years-old, rose from 10.5 to 12.2. From the middle 1970s to 1991, the educational attainment for all young adults remained very stable, with virtually no change among whites, blacks, males or females. The educational attainment average for the entire population continued to rise as the more highly educated younger cohorts replaced older Americans who had fewer educational opportunities.

In 1991, about 70 percent of black and other races males and 69 percent of black and other races females had completed high school. This is lower than the corresponding figures for white males and females (80 percent). However, the differences in these percentages have narrowed appreciably in recent years. Other data corroborate the rapid increase in the education level of the minority population. The proportion of black and other races males with 4 or more years of college rose from 12 percent in 1980 to 18 percent in 1991, with a similar rise for black and other races females.

Illiteracy

Illiteracy statistics give an important indication of the education level of the adult population. Today, illiteracy is a different issue than in earlier years. The more recent focus on illiteracy has centered on functional literacy, which addresses the issue of whether a person's educational level is sufficient to function in a modern society. The earlier surveys of illiteracy examined a very fundamental level of reading and writing. The percent of illiteracy, according to earlier measurement methods, was less than 1 percent of persons 14 years old and over in 1979.

The data in this table for the years 1870 to 1930 come from direct questions from the decennial censuses of 1870 to 1930, and are therefore self-reported results. The data for 1947, 1952, 1959, 1969, and 1979 were obtained from sample surveys they exclude the Armed Forces and inmates of institutions. The statistics for the census years 1940 and 1950 were derived by estimating procedures.

Percentage of persons 14 years old and over who were illiterate (unable to read or write in any language), by race and nativity: 1870 to 1979

Year Total White Black and other
Total Native Foreign-born
1870 20.0 11.5 &ndash &ndash 79.9
1880 17.0 9.4 8.7 12.0 70.0
1890 13.3 7.7 6.2 13.1 56.8
1900 10.7 6.2 4.6 12.9 44.5
1910 7.7 5.0 3.0 12.7 30.5
1920 6.0 4.0 2.0 13.1 23.0
1930 4.3 3.0 1.6 10.8 16.4
1940 2.9 2.0 1.1 9.0 11.5
1947 2.7 1.8 &ndash &ndash 11.0
1950 3.2 &ndash &ndash &ndash &ndash
1952 2.5 1.8 &ndash &ndash 10.2
1959 2.2 1.6 &ndash &ndash 7.5
1969 1.0 0.7 &ndash &ndash 3.6 *
1979 0.6 0.4 &ndash &ndash 1.6 *
* Based on black population only
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 and Current Population Reports, Series P-23, Ancestry and Language in the United States: November 1979. (This table was prepared in September 1992.)

For the later part of this century the illiteracy rates have been relatively low, registering only about 4 percent as early as 1930. However, in the late 19th century and early 20th century, illiteracy was very common. In 1870, 20 percent of the entire adult population was illiterate, and 80 percent of the black population was illiterate. By 1900 the situation had improved somewhat, but still 44 percent of blacks remained illiterate. The statistical data show significant improvements for black and other races in the early portion of the 20th century as the former slaves who had no educational opportunities in their youth were replaced by younger individuals who grew up in the post Civil War period and often had some chance to obtain a basic education. The gap in illiteracy between white and black adults continued to narrow through the 20th century, and in 1979 the rates were about the same.

Summary

The historical data show large increases in enrollment rates over the past 125 years, with some significant rises even in more recent years. The higher levels of education attained by young adults in the most recent decades suggest that the overall education level of the population will continue to rise slowly into at least the early 21st century.


10 November 1940 - History

History of Kahlo Painting Sales
and
Auction Results

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $20,000 - $30,000
with a minimum sale price of $20,000

Sold For: $19,000
(The painting failed to reach the minimum sale price but was sold anyway to the highest bidder)

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: Unknown

Sold By: (Unknown) Sold Privately to the pop star "Madonna".

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: Unknown

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: Unknown

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $900,000 - $1,200,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $800,000 - $1,000,000

Sold For: $1,430,000
(Sold to Mary-Anne Martin Gallery of New York)

This sale made Frida the first Latin-American artist to command more than $1 million for a single work.

Sold By: Mary-Anne Martin Galleryin Manhattan, NYC,
to Louise Noun

Sold By: Auctioned at Christie's, New York, for Louise Noun

Auction Estimate: $1,500,000 - $2,000,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $120,000 - $160,000

This painting was sold to Mary Anne Martin, the owner of a New York Art Gallery that specialized in Latin American Art. The pop star "Madonna", who at the time was buying and collecting Kahlo art, was the underbidder.

Sold By: Christie's, New York

Auction Estimate: $8,000,000 - $12,000,000

This sale was an auction record for her work. Sotheby's has privately sold Kahlo works for more than $15 million.

Sold By: Auctioned at Christie's,
New York, Rockefeller Plaza

Auction Estimate: $1,000,000 - $1,300,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Christie's,
New York, Rockefeller Plaza

Auction Estimate: $25,000 - $35,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: Unknown

Sold For: $3,192,500
(Sold to Eduardo Costantini of Argentina)

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: Unknown

Sold By: Gary Nader Fine Arts Gallery, Miami, Florida

Auction Estimate: $1,000,000 - $1,200,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $3,000,000 - $4,000,000

Sold For: $5,065,750
(Sold to an American collector)

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $150,000 - $200,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Christie's,
New York, Rockefeller Plaza

Auction Estimate: $30,000 - $40,000

Auction Estimate: $800,000 to $1,200,000

Sold For: Not Sold
(It failed to sell and was passed at $500,000)

Sold By: Auctioned at Christie's,
New York, Rockefeller Plaza

Auction Estimate: $80,000 - $120,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Christie's,
New York, Rockefeller Plaza

Auction Estimate: $1,500,000 - $2,000,000

The price included a second work, a sketch for a
second portrait etched on the back.

Auction Estimate: $3,000,000 (Starting Bid)

Sold For: Not Sold (Auction closed with no bids)

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: Unknown

Sold For: Not Sold
(It failed to sell and was passed at $775,000)

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $60,000 - $80,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Christie's, Paris

Auction Estimate: $58,000 - $80,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $5,000,000 - $7,000,000

The sale of this painting set a new record for the artist. It was sold to an anonymous phone bidder. Rumors within the art world say that the anonymous buyer was the pop star "Madonna" who owns other Kahlo originals.

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $50,000 - $70,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Sotheby's, New York

Auction Estimate: $50,000 - $70,000

Sold By: Auctioned at Christie's
New York, Rockefeller Plaza

Auction Estimate: $100,000 - $150,000

Sold For: $1,178,500
(In 1938 this piece sold for $100)


Inoculation was introduced to America by a slave.

Few details are known about the birth of Onesimus, but it is assumed he was born in Africa in the late seventeenth century before eventually landing in Boston. One of a thousand people of African descent living in the Massachusetts colony, Onesimus was a gift to the Puritan church minister Cotton Mather from his congregation in 1706.

Onesimus told Mather about the centuries old tradition of inoculation practiced in Africa. By extracting the material from an infected person and scratching it into the skin of an uninfected person, you could deliberately introduce smallpox to the healthy individual making them immune. Considered extremely dangerous at the time, Cotton Mather convinced Dr. Zabdiel Boylston to experiment with the procedure when a smallpox epidemic hit Boston in 1721 and over 240 people were inoculated. Opposed politically, religiously and medically in the United States and abroad, public reaction to the experiment put Mather and Boylston’s lives in danger despite records indicating that only 2% of patients requesting inoculation died compared to the 15% of people not inoculated who contracted smallpox.

Onesimus’ traditional African practice was used to inoculate American soldiers during the Revolutionary War and introduced the concept of inoculation to the United States.


Revival Architecture in The United States

In the young United States, disenchantment with baroque, rococo, and even with neo-Palladianism turned late 18th-century architects and designers toward the original Greek and Roman prototypes. Its Greek aspect was particularly strong in the early years of the 19th century until about 1850. New settlements were given Greek names—Syracuse, Ithaca, Troy—and Doric and Ionic columns, entablatures, and pediments, mostly transmuted into white-painted wood, were applied to public buildings and important town houses in the style called Greek revival.

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The Greek Revival dominated american architecture during the period 1818-1850. It was the first truly national style in the United States, found in all regions of the country. The popularity of the style was due to strong associations with classical tradition and democracy. The Greek Revival was very adaptable, and permeated all levels of building, from high to low.

Boston’s grandiose Trinity Church (1872-1877)

Eventually the applications of Steel lead to reinforced, and even later post-tensioned concrete. This cheap combination between an extremely strong material in tension and an extremely strong material in compression made high-rise and bridges construction possible.


History of Pesticide Use

The practice of agriculture first began about 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia (part of present day Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Jordan) where edible seeds were initially gathered by a population of hunter/gatherers 1 . Cultivation of wheat, barley, peas, lentils, chickpeas, bitter vetch and flax then followed as the population became more settled and farming became the way of life. Similarly, in China rice and millet were domesticated, whilst about 7,500 years ago rice and sorghum were farmed in the Sahel region of Africa. Local crops were domesticated independently in West Africa and possibly in New Guinea and Ethiopia. Three regions of the Americas independently domesticated corn, squashes, potato and sunflowers 2 .

It is clear that the farmed crops would suffer from pests and diseases causing a large loss in yield with the ever present possibility of famine for the population. Even today with advances in agricultural sciences losses due to pests and diseases range from 10-90%, with an average of 35 to 40%, for all potential food and fibre crops 3 . There was thus a great incentive to find ways of overcoming the problems caused by pests and diseases. The first recorded use of insecticides is about 4500 years ago by Sumerians who used sulphur compounds to control insects and mites, whilst about 3200 years ago the Chinese were using mercury and arsenical compounds for controlling body lice 4 . Writings from ancient Greece and Rome show that religion, folk magic and the use of what may be termed chemical methods were tried for the control of plant diseases, weeds, insects and animal pests. As there was no chemical industry, any products used had to be either of plant or animal derivation or, if of mineral nature, easily obtainable or available. Thus, for example, smokes are recorded as being used against mildew and blights. The principle was to burn some material such as straw, chaff, hedge clippings, crabs, fish, dung, ox or other animal horn to windward so that the smoke, preferably malodorous, would spread throughout the orchard, crop or vineyard. It was generally held that such smoke would dispel the blight or mildew. Smokes were also used against insects, as were various plant extracts such as bitter lupin or wild cucumber. Tar was also used on tree trunks to trap crawling insects. Weeds were controlled mainly by hand weeding but various “chemical” methods are also described such as the use of salt or sea water 5,6 . Pyrethrum, which is derived from the dried flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium “Pyrethrum daisies”, has been used as an insecticide for over 2000 years. Persians used the powder to protect stored grain and later, Crusaders brought information back to Europe that dried round daisies controlled head lice 7 . Many inorganic chemicals have been used since ancient times as pesticides 8 , indeed Bordeaux Mixture, based on copper sulphate and lime, is still used against various fungal diseases.

Up until the 1940s inorganic substances, such as sodium chlorate and sulphuric acid, or organic chemicals derived from natural sources were still widely used in pest control. However, some pesticides were by-products of coal gas production or other industrial processes. Thus early organics such as nitrophenols, chlorophenols, creosote, naphthalene and petroleum oils were used for fungal and insect pests, whilst ammonium sulphate and sodium arsenate were used as herbicides. The drawback for many of these products was their high rates of application, lack of selectivity and phytotoxicity 9 . The growth in synthetic pesticides accelerated in the 1940s with the discovery of the effects of DDT, BHC, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, parathion, captan and 2,4-D. These products were effective and inexpensive with DDT being the most popular, because of its broad-spectrum activity 4 ,10 . DDT was widely used, appeared to have low toxicity to mammals, and reduced insect-born diseases, like malaria, yellow fever and typhus consequently, in 1949, Dr. Paul Muller won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering its insecticidal properties. However, in 1946 resistance to DDT by house flies was reported and, because of its widespread use, there were reports of harm to non-target plants and animals and problems with residues 4,10 .

Throughout most of the 1950s, consumers and most policy makers were not overly concerned about the potential health risks in using pesticides. Food was cheaper because of the new chemical formulations and with the new pesticides there were no documented cases of people dying or being seriously hurt by their "normal" use 11 . There were some cases of harm from misuse of the chemicals. But the new pesticides seemed rather safe, especially compared to the forms of arsenic that had killed people in the 1920s and 1930s 12 . However, problems could arise through the indiscriminate use and in 1962 these were highlighted by Rachel Carson in her book Silent Spring 13 . This brought home the problems that could be associated with indiscriminate use of pesticides and paved the way for safer and more environmentally friendly products.

Research into pesticides continued and the 1970s and 1980s saw the introduction of the world’s greatest selling herbicide, glyphosate, the low use rate sulfonylurea and imidazolinone (imi) herbicides, as well as dinitroanilines and the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (fop) and cyclohexanediones (dim) families. For insecticides there was the synthesis of a 3 rd generation of pyrethroids, the introduction of avermectins, benzoylureas and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) as a spray treatment. This period also saw the introduction of the triazole, morpholine, imidazole, pyrimidine and dicarboxamide families of fungicides. As many of the agrochemicals introduced at this time had a single mode of action, thus making them more selective, problems with resistance occurred and management strategies were introduced to combat this negative effect.

In the 1990s research activities concentrated on finding new members of existing families which have greater selectivity and better environmental and toxicological profiles. In addition new families of agrochemicals have been introduced to the market such as the triazolopyrimidine, triketone and isoxazole herbicides, the strobilurin and azolone fungicides and chloronicotinyl, spinosyn, fiprole and diacylhydrazine insectides. Many of the new agrochemicals can be used at grams rather than the kilograms per hectare.

New insecticide 14 and fungicide 15 chemistry has allowed better resistance management and improved selectivity This period also saw the refinement of mature products in terms of use patterns with the introduction of newer and more user-friendly and environmentally safe formulations 9 . Integrated pest management systems, which use all available pest control techniques in order to discourage the development of pest populations and reduce the use of pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified, have also contributed to reducing pesticide use 16 .

Today the pest management toolbox has expanded to include use of genetically engineered crops designed to produce their own insecticides or exhibit resistance to broad spectrum herbicide products or pests. These include herbicide tolerant crops like soybeans, corn, canola and cotton and varieties of corn and cotton resistant to corn borer and bollworm respectively 9 . In addition the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems which discourage the development of pest populations and reduce the use of agrochemicals have also become more widespread. These changes have altered the nature of pest control and have the potential to reduce and/or change the nature of agrochemicals used.

1 . Impetus for sowing and the beginning of agriculture: Ground collecting of wild cereals M.E. Kislev, E. Weiss and A. Hartmann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101 (9) 2692-2694 (2004)

2. Primal Seeds, Origin of Agriculture

3 . Economic Benefits of Pest Management R. Peshin, Encyclopedia of Pest Management, pages 224-227, Pub. Marcel Dekker, 2002


Contents

Version 1507 (RTM)

Windows 10 Version 1507 (build 10.0.10240), codenamed "Threshold 1", is the first release of Windows 10. It carries the build number 10.0.10240 while Microsoft has stated that there was no designated "RTM" build of Windows 10, 10240 has been described as an RTM build by various media outlets. It has been retroactively named "version 1507" by Microsoft per its naming conventions for future stable releases of the operating system. The final release was made available to Windows Insiders on July 15, 2015, followed by a public release on July 29, 2015. As of August 2, 2016, the Threshold 1 release is the only available release in Long Term Servicing Branch (LTSB). Support of version 1507 ended on May 9, 2017.

Version 1511 (November Update)

Windows 10 November Update, or Windows 10 Version 1511 (build 10.0.10586), codenamed "Threshold 2", is the first major update to Windows 10. It carries the build number 10.0.10586 and version 1511, referencing its date of release, November 2015. The first preview was released on August 18, 2015. The final release was made available to Windows Insiders on November 3, 2015, followed by a public release on November 12, 2015 to existing Windows 10 users, and as a free upgrade from Windows 7 and Windows 8.1. Unlike the initial release of Windows, this branch was also made available to existing Windows Phone 8.1-devices and the Xbox One and as a preview release to Windows Server 2016 and was pre-installed on new Windows 10 Mobile-devices like the Microsoft Lumia 950. The Threshold 2 release of Windows 10 is supported for users of the Current Branch for Business (CBB).

Version 1607 (Anniversary Update)

Windows 10 Anniversary Update, or Windows 10 Version 1607 (build 10.0.14393), codenamed "Redstone 1", is the second major update to Windows 10 and the first of the 4 major updates planned under the Redstone codenames. It carries the build number 10.0.14393 and version 1607. The first preview was released on December 16, 2015. It was released to the public on August 2, 2016. The Redstone 1 release of Windows 10 is supported for users of the Current Branch (CB) and Long-Term Support Branch (LTSB)

Version 1703 (Creators Update)

Windows 10 Creators Update, (or Windows 10 Version 1703, codenamed "Redstone 2", build 10.0.15063), is the third major update to Windows 10 and the second of the 4 major updates planned under the Redstone codenames. The first preview was released to Insiders on August 11, 2016.

Version 1709 (Fall Creators Update)

Windows 10 Fall Creators Update (also known as version 1709 and codenamed "Redstone 3", build 10.0.16299) is the fourth major update to Windows 10 and the third in a series of updates under the Redstone codenames. The first preview was released to Insiders on April 7, 2017. The final release was made available to Windows Insiders on September 26, 2017 before being released to the public on October 17.

Version 1803 (April 2018 Update)

Windows 10 April 2018 Update (also known as version 1803 and codenamed "Redstone 4", build 10.0.17134) is the fifth major update to Windows 10 and the fourth in a series of updates under the Redstone codenames. The first preview was released to Insiders on August 31, 2017. The final release was made available to Windows Insiders on April 16, 2018, followed by a public release on April 30, and began to roll out on May 8.

Version 1809 (October 2018 Update)

Windows 10 October 2018 Update (also known as version 1809 and codenamed "Redstone 5", build 10.0.17763) is the sixth major update to Windows 10 and the fifth in a series of updates under the Redstone codenames. The first preview was released to Insiders on February 14, 2018. The update was originally made available to public consumers on October 2, 2018, but its rollout was halted on October 6, 2018, due to a serious bug that deletes users' personal files after updating. On October 9, 2018, Microsoft re-released the update to Insiders, stating that all known issues in the update (including file deletion bug) had been identified and fixed. On October 25, 2018, Microsoft confirmed the existence of another bug that overwrites files without any confirmation, when extracting from a ZIP file. The ZIP bug was fixed for Insiders on October 30, 2018, and the public rollout of the update resumed on November 13, 2018.

Version 1903 (May 2019 Update)

Windows 10 May 2019 Update (also known as version 1903 and codenamed "19H1", build 10.0.18362) is the seventh major update to Windows 10 and the first to use a more descriptive codename (including the year and the order released) instead of the "Redstone" or "Threshold" codename. The first preview was released to Insiders who opted into the exclusive Skip Ahead ring on July 25, 2018. The update began rolling out on May 21, 2019. Notable changes in the May 2019 Update include:

  • A new "light theme"
  • Separation of Search and Cortana in the taskbar
  • Windows Sandbox (not available in Windows 10 Home)

Version 1909 (November 2019 Update)

Windows 10 version 1909, codenamed "19H2", build 10.0.18363, is the eighth major update to Windows 10 and the second to use a more descriptive codename. The update is intended to be delivered as a cumulative update to the May 2019 Update. The first preview was released to Insiders who opted into the slow ring on July 1, 2019.

Version 2004 (May 2020 Update)

Windows 10 version 2004, codenamed "20H1", build 10.0.19041, is the ninth major update to Windows 10. The update began rolling out on May 27, 2020. Notable changes include:


10 Sexy Photos From the History of Pornography (NSFW)

Robert Rosen spent the last two decades of the 20th century working in the world of adult magazines. Under the name Bobby Paradise, he edited titles like High Society, D-Cup and many more. In Beaver Street: A History of Modern Pornography, Rosen, who also wrote the John Lennon biography Nowhere Man, combines his personal tales with insight into the world of adult entertainment.

Let's take a look back at ten NSFW images that marked the late 20th century.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

1. Stag, 1974

The natural look of the 1970s graces the cover of this issue of Stag.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

2. High Society, January, 1984

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

3. High Society, February, 1984

Totally ྌs with massive, um, hair and heavy make-up.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

4. Swank, November, 1984

Celebrating 30 years of Swank with pole dancing and puns.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

5. For Adults Only, November, 1985

The ྌs derrière, glossy and toned.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

6. Greg Dark, a female porn star (identity unknown), Walter Dark

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

7. Bra Busters, 1989

For those who like buxom ladies.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

8. D-Cup, May, 1992

Tiffany Towers with a strategically placed scarf.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

9. Interactive Visual Chat advertisement

The early days of online entertainment for adults.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

10. Plump and Pink, 1999

Because lust comes in all sizes.

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The 10 Worst Bombings in US History

We still don't have all the facts about yesterday's horrific Boston Marathon bombing. At the time this column is being written, it's being reported that 3 people died and more than 100 were injured in the attack. While bombings are not a common occurrence in America, there have been more of them than most people realize.

10) The World Trade Center Bombing (February 26, 1993): A van filled with explosives went off in the parking garage beneath the World Trade Center. Almost unbelievably, although over a thousand people were wounded, only six were killed. It could have been much worse because the goal of the bombing had been to take down both towers. Had that happened, the body count would have been even larger than 9/11. The terrorist behind the attack was Ramzi Yousef, who is now serving a life sentence.

9) The Preparedness Day Bombing (July 22, 1916): The Preparedness Day parade was designed to lift morale in San Francisco in anticipation of the possible entry of the United States into World War I. Before the event, anti-war activists were harshly critical and during the parade a suitcase bomb went off, killing 10 and wounding 40. Labor leaders Thomas Mooney and Warren Billings were convicted of the crime and were both eventually sentenced to life in prison. After the two men spent 20 years in jail, Democrat Governor Culbert Olson grew concerned about whether they received a fair trial and pardoned them.

8) The LaGuardia Airport Bombing (December 29, 1975): Four days after Christmas, a powerful bomb that had been placed in a locker at LaGuardia Airport went off. It collapsed the ceiling and fired shrapnel across the room. Eleven people were killed and seventy five were injured by the bomb. Although a number of groups were thought to potentially be responsible including FALN, the Palestinian Liberation Organization, the Jewish Defense League and also a Croatian nationalist named Zvonko Busic, no organization ever claimed credit and the crime remains unsolved.

7) The Haymarket Affair (May 4, 1886): A protest rally in Chicago led to a clash between anarchists, union members and police. During the protest, an anarchist threw a bomb at the police. A police officer was killed by the bomb and several others were wounded. That led to an exchange of gunfire between the cops and the violent crowd. Seven police officers and four members of the crowd were killed while one hundred twenty people were injured. While no one ever figured out exactly which anarchist actually flung the bomb, seven were prosecuted for the crime. Ultimately, Oscar Neebe received 15 years in prison, Michael Schwab and Samuel Fielden served life in prison, Louis Lingg killed himself while he was jailed and Adolph Fischer, Albert Parsons, George Engel and August Spies were hung.

6) The Los Angeles Times Bombing (October 1, 1910): A bomb wired to 16 sticks of dynamite exploded in an alley next to the Los Angeles Times. The bomb killed 20 employees of the paper and injured another 100. It turned out that two brothers who were members of the Iron Workers Union, John and James McNamara, were angry about the anti-union slant of the Times and set the bomb as retaliation.

5) The Bath School Disaster (May 18, 1927): After losing an election for Township Clerk, School Board Treasurer Andrew Kehoe decided to take revenge by executing what turned out to be the worst massacre at a school in American history. After murdering his wife, Kehoe set off bombs that he had secretly been planting inside the school for months. As rescuers arrived to begin helping the wounded children and teachers, Kehoe drove up in a truck filled with explosives and blew himself up, slaughtering even more people. By the time it was over, 44 people were dead and 58 were injured.

4) The Wall Street Bombing (September 16, 1920): A horse drawn carriage packed with 100 pounds of dynamite and 500 pounds of iron was detonated outside the headquarters of J.P. Morgan Bank on Wall Street. Although anarchists were believed to be responsible, no culprit was ever prosecuted for the bombing that took the lives of 30 people and injured another 300.

3) United Airlines Flight 629 (November 1, 1955): John Gilbert Graham had a poor relationship with his mother, Daisie Eldora King. After taking out 4 life insurance policies on her, he offered his mother a "Christmas present" that turned out to be a bomb. It went off while United Airlines Flight 629 was in the air, 35 miles outside of Denver. All 44 passengers and crew died.

2) Continental Airlines Flight 11 (May 22, 1962): Thomas G. Doty bought a couple of large insurance policies, purchased 6 sticks of dynamite and then got on Continental Airlines, Flight 11. Doty then committed suicide via explosion in hopes that his wife and child would receive the insurance money. All 45 passengers on the plane died when the bomb knocked the plane out of the sky.

1) The Oklahoma City Bombing (April 19, 1995): Timothy McVeigh, along with his co-conspirators Terry Nichols and Michael Fortier were responsible for destroying a large section of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building with a truck bomb. They were motivated by anger at the government in general along with the heavy handed tactics used by the Clinton Administration during the Waco Siege and at Ruby Ridge. There were 169 people killed in the bombing and 675 were wounded.


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