Bonnie Wiley

Bonnie Wiley

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Bonnie Wiley was born in Portland, Oregon. After high school she joined the Yakima Daily Republic. Later she worked at the Portland Oregonian and the Seattle Times.

During the Second World War Wiley joined the Association Press in California and in January 1945 was sent to report on the Pacific War. This included the fighting in the Philippines and Okinawa.

After the war Wiley returned to the Portland Oregonian before joining the Washington Morning Herald. Later she taught journalism at Washington University and the University of Hawaii.

This is a tour of the Okinawa battlefield after the guns have fallen silent-a battlefield where many valorous young Americans fell but carried with them into eternity an even greater number of Japanese.

The jeep bumps along - moving slowly through the dust clouds to keep from running down Okinawans - past the ruined and deserted villages into the rubble heap of what was once Naha, the capital of Okinawa.

Then up the hill to Shuri Castle, where the Japanese had their headquarters until the shells and bombs pulverized the walls, five feet thick.

There was Chocolate Drop Hill, where the wreckage of 15 American tanks stopped by Japanese shells are mute monuments to the valor of the men who fell in the battle to conquer it.

It is peaceful now on Conical Hill, where the Americans fought up and were driven back and finally went up to stay.

Not far away is a cemetery where many of those who fought on Conical Hill lie buried. Helmeted soldiers are painting white crosses.

In the center of one cemetery was a low picket fence around the grave of Lieut. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr., commander of the U.S. Tenth Army, who fell just as final victory was in view.

The sporadic fire of Japanese snipers from distant Hill 89 reminds the visitor that men still are falling although the campaign has long since ended.

Bonnie Wiley - History

Charles Stanley, not to be confused with the minister from Atlanta, lived in Abilene, Kansas and was in the entertainment business all his life. The opportunity presented itself for him to first rent and then purchase the so-called “Death Car” of Bonnie and Clyde.

For many years, Bonnie and Clyde were prominent figures in the news and the public picked up on their story along with other outlaws of the day. One theory about why the criminals like Bonnie and Clyde, John Dillinger, Pretty Boy Floyd, Machine Gun Kelly and others were so popular in America during the depression was that the banks they robbed were also taking away farms and homes of Americans. In any event, daily newspapers covered their activities and they were viewed as the celebrities of the day.

Bonnie and Clyde met their fate on May 23, 1934 when they were ambushed by law officers in Bienville Parish, Louisiana where they’d traveled to allow a gang member named Henry Methvin to visit his family. Unknown to the group, Methvin’s father and made a deal with the authorities to identify them when they stopped at a rural location to meet. The gang was driving a 1934 Ford DeLuxe V-8 that had been stolen in Topeka, Kansas a month earlier. True to the agreement, when they stopped, Methvin’s father pointed out the outlaws. Lawmen including Texas Rangers came out of the woods, shooting the car full of 160 bullet holes with at least 50 bullets reaching the bodies of Bonnie and Clyde.

After a brief time, the Ford was returned in 1934 to its owners, Jessie and Ruth Warren of Tokepka, who were also presented with an $85 towing and storage bill. The Warrens were in a quandary about what they should do with it until they were approached by a local carnival operator named Charles Stanley. In addition to his entertainment business, Stanley also worked of the National Anti-Crime Association (NACA) in the area. Stanley approached them with an offer to rent the car. His plan was to travel with the car, offering exhibits where he would lecture on law and order and that crime doesn’t pay. The audio of one such lecture is linked below, and Stanley describes the final confrontation in Louisiana:

Stanley and lived much of his life in Abilene, Kansas. He’d wanted to be an entertainer himself after having played in the high school band and having grown up enjoying the local theatrical productions. His father had owned a carnival, so this life was natural for him. He was also an excellent sign and banner painter. In time, he organized a carnival of his own and supported his family by taking it around the area, supplementing the activity by giving lectures for NACA. After making the arrangement with the Warrens, Stanley toured the area for four years before purchasing the car from the Warrens. His lectures would reveal the Death Car and show slides of other similar incidents. He also was featured on radio programs and became known as the Crime Doctor.

For a time, Stanley was able to persuade Bonnie’s mother Emma Parker and Clyde’s mother Cumie Barrow to join his lecture tour after they were released from jail. The Depression was still in full force and this allowed the family members to earn some income. At times, the troupe also included Henry Barrow and the father of John Dillinger. Marie Barrow and husband Joe Bill Francis also toured with the group and were employed to handle ticket sales. One incident is recounted when Stanley and the group reached Austin, Texas. Stanley was confronted by Texas Ranger Captain Frank Hamer who objected to Stanley revealing the identity of the informant Methvin. Hamer is reported to have had a physical confrontation with Stanley and confiscated his slides, warning him to stop putting on his shows. Undeterred, Stanley continued his tour with a duplicate set of slides. Stanley was concerned enough that he hired two security guards (Bob Alcorn and Ted Hinton) when he exhibited the car at the 1939 State Fair of Texas in Dallas. He was prepared for controversy, but was not again confronted by Hamer.

By the time he retired from touring, Stanley had lectured with the Bonnie and Clyde car in all 48 states. For a while, he also brought with him one of the various former getaway cars belonging to John Dillinger. The Dillinger cars were known to be reinforced and armored and though Dillinger favored the Hudson Terraplane, it is not known which exact car was used in the tours.

Stanley continued to tour with the car until about 1941 when he took a job with the Coney Island Amusement Park in Cincinnati, Ohio as director of special events, a job he would hold until his retirement in 1973. While he was employed there, the Death Car was exhibited at the park until about 1952. Interest in the exploits of the gang had gradually declined over the years and the car was placed in storage until Stanley sold it to Ted Toddy who owned it until about 1973.

In the interim, the feature film “Bonnie and Clyde” was released in 1967, leading to a resurgence of interest in the lives of the gang, and the car was sold to a casino in Nevada, possibly in 1988, this time for $173,000 and many times more than Stanley had sold it for. Stanley continued to lecture without the car for a number of years until he passed away in Kansas in 1996.

There are a number of cars that reference the Death Car (even one in Gunter, Texas) but the actual vehicle is believed to now reside at Primm Hotel and Casino in Primm, Nevada.


Cowie was born on 19 January 1979 in Bow, East London. [9] He is of Trinidadian and Antiguan descent. Cowie's father, Richard Cowie Senior was a reggae artist during Cowie's youth in the 1980s and introduced Cowie to early hip-hop such as The Sugarhill Gang. [10] Cowie's interest in music began when his father introduced him to the drums. [11] Cowie moved around London a lot as a child with his father [12] before moving to Chatham, Kent to live with his grandmother when he was ten. Cowie spent a year in Chatham and described it as a bad time, saying "I just wanted to go and live with my dad. I felt abandoned." Cowie eventually moved back to Bow to live with his father when he was eleven years old. [10]

When Cowie was a teenager in the early-1990s, he began to sell crack cocaine and heroin. Cowie was introduced to drug dealing from a DJ friend who was making a lot of money at the time. Cowie stopped dealing drugs when a local drug dealer who was much older than him began to threaten him and his friend. Cowie began producing music after he stopped dealing drugs as an alternative way to make money. [12] Cowie started as a DJ, and eventually began rapping, incorporating garage music and drum and bass into his produced instrumentals which led to the creation of the first ever grime beats such as "Eskimo", produced in Christmas of 1999 or 2000 and officially released in 2002. [13] [14] He broadcast his productions over pirate radio stations such as Rinse FM. [10] Initially Wiley went by the name DJ Wildchild, until a woman from Kool FM began using the name Wildchild herself and surpassed Wiley in popularity. As a result, he changed his name to Wiley Kat, a reference to a Thundercats character, and later simply Wiley. [15]

Though Cowie stopped selling drugs, he was still associated with criminal gangs and with people who took part in criminal activities. [12] This led to Wiley being involved in many situations that were life-threatening. On one occasion Cowie's friend had solicited money from someone following a drug deal though the money never was paid, Cowie argued with the person who owed his friend money and eventually Cowie was ambushed when attending a show. The confrontation led to Cowie being stabbed seven times. Several weeks later, the same people attacked Cowie outside a sports retail store, which led to Cowie almost dying in a hospital in Hammersmith. [16] Cowie has been stabbed more than twenty times in his lifetime [17] and has been in numerous other life-threatening situations including being chased by a man with a samurai sword and being shot at with shotguns. [10]

1996–2003: Early years Edit

As a teenager, Wiley featured on pirate radio stations such as Rinse FM and drum and bass stations. [18] In 2000, Wiley went from SS Crew to join The Ladies Hit Squad, a garage crew with his college friends DJ Target and MC Maxwell D. [19] They achieved some success on the UK garage scene and soon decided to combine with rival crew Pay As U Go to become a 'super crew' containing members of Ladies Hit Squad, as well as DJ Slimzee, DJ Geeneus and MCs Major Ace and Plague A Lero from Brown Brothers whom Wiley occasionally deejayed for. [ citation needed ] God's Gift from Deck Collecters Crew, Flow Dan and Riko Dan joined soon after. [20] In 2002, the collective achieved a top 20 hit with "Champagne Dance". [21] Wiley also received wide recognition in 2000 for his UK garage record "Nicole's Groove" which he produced under the stage name Phaze One. [22] [23]

After Pay As U Go disbanded, Wiley went on to form the Roll Deep entourage, which included Dizzee Rascal and Tinchy Stryder. They moved away from a traditional UK garage sound, and eventually found themselves creating music that would be termed grime. [24]

From 2001 onwards, Wiley began producing instrumental singles on his Wiley Kat Recordings label, including "Eskimo", "Avalanche", "Ice Rink" and "Snowman". These led to a solo record deal with XL Recordings. [ citation needed ]

2004–2007: Treddin' on Thin Ice, Da 2nd Phaze and Playtime Is Over Edit

In 2004, Wiley released his debut album, Treddin' on Thin Ice on XL. [ citation needed ] Singles from the album include "Wot Do U Call It?", a record questioning what name should be given to his music, and "Pies". [ citation needed ] Many reviews, including that by Pitchfork Media, made comparisons between Wiley and his previous labelmate Dizzee Rascal, who had achieved success with Boy in Da Corner the previous year. [25] Alexis Petridis of The Guardian noted the "comically polarised" fanbase Wiley had accrued "At one extreme, its sonic experimentation has attracted the kind of people who run music blogs. [where] lengthy essays are posted on issues as the differentiation between Humean and Kantian views of motivation in the lyrics of Bonnie Prince Billy. At the other extreme, it is favoured by inner-city teens who appear to communicate entirely in an impenetrable mix of street slang and patois." [26]

During this period, Wiley occasionally referred to his music as "eski", short for "eskibeat" – the name he initially gave to grime. Also, Wiley released mixtapes under the name 'Eskiboy'. He explained his choice of name for his music and the continuing theme in his song and album titles such as Treddin' on Thin Ice, partly because he likes the wintertime, but mainly meaning cold in spirit. [27] Wiley was quoted in conjunction with his cold theme:

"Sometimes I just feel cold hearted. I felt cold at that time, towards my family, towards everyone. That's why I used those names" [28]

Many of Wiley's early vinyl releases, such as 'Eskimo', were released under the alias "Wiley Kat" this name was derived from a character in the cartoon Thundercats. However, the "Kat" is never officially used by Wiley any more, only being mentioned loosely in some of his songs.

In 2006, Wiley released his second album Da 2nd Phaze, released through Boy Better Know. [ citation needed ] The album consists of 20 tracks that have been put together by Wiley from the past three years, including exclusive bonus tracks from Gods Gift, Alex Mills and More Fire Crew. [ citation needed ]

This was followed in by Wiley's third album, Playtime is Over, released in 2007 on Big Dada Records, an album which followed his eskibeat roots. Wiley's eskibeat and solo material is managed by the Perpetuity Music Group. [ citation needed ] The album was released on the same day as Dizzee Rascal's third album, Maths + English, and includes a track "Letter 2 Dizzee" which calls for the end of his feud with Dizzee Rascal. [29] [30]

2008–2009: Grime Wave, See Clear Now and Race Against Time Edit

In May 2008, Wiley found mainstream chart success with the hit single, "Wearing My Rolex". The instrumentation, such as the slower, house style beat and lack of sub bass, [31] caused some unrest within the grime scene, as Wiley had previously vowed that he would never change his sound to break into the mainstream. [ citation needed ] In the same month, Wiley released his fourth album, Grime Wave, which was described by The Times as a "very pre-Rolex album. With its roots firmly based in the harsh, bass-heavy rhythms of the scene". [32] This was followed by his fifth studio album, See Clear Now, in October 2008, which included the mainstream hits "Wearing My Rolex", "Cash in My Pocket" and "Summertime". See Clear Now took Wiley in a mainstream direction. [ citation needed ] Despite its success, Wiley has disowned the album as he was "very angry" with the label Asylum, about the production and also unhappy about his management at the time. Wiley then left the label. [33]

Now on his own label, Wiley went on to release his sixth studio album, Race Against Time. This was released eight months after his previous album in June 2009, on Eskibeat Recordings where he had far more creative control. [ citation needed ] The album includes the 2009 hit "Too Many Man" featuring Boy Better Know. [ citation needed ]

2010–2011: Zip Files, iTunes Offload and 100% Publishing Edit

In 2010, Wiley released 11 zip files for free download via his Twitter page, containing over 200 tracks of old and unreleased music, including tracks from the forthcoming album The Elusive. [34]

Wiley was featured on the Mark Ronson song "Record Collection", also featuring Simon Le Bon, from the album of the same name, released first in Ireland on 24 September 2010. The song was included on the soundtrack to FIFA 11. [35]

On 4 March 2011, Wiley released Offload Volume 01 on iTunes. It did not get a physical release and it was partially slated by fans for containing some tracks which had already been released for free on the zip files. The album contained many songs that featured Wiley's crew A-List as well as the track "Yo Riley". On 6 March 2011, Wiley released a song called "Bright Lights", which features Giggs and Juelz Santana. On 9 March 2011, Wiley released an instrumental album entitled Run the Riddim Selecta. Offload Volume 01, "Bright Lights" and Run the Riddim Selecta were all released on Launchpad Records. Wiley's seventh studio album, 100% Publishing, was released on 20 June 2011 on the record label Big Dada, and charted in the UK Albums Chart at number 76.

On 8 July 2011, Wiley released an independent EP for digital download titled Chill Out Zone. Singles from the EP, "Seduction" and "If I Could" were released in May 2011.

On 25 July 2011, Wiley released the radio edit of "Link Up" on iTunes, which is the first single from his eighth studio album, Evolve or Be Extinct, which was released on 19 January 2012. "Link Up" is produced by Nana Rogues and the official "Link Up" single was released in September 2011.

2012–2013: Evolve or Be Extinct and The Ascent Edit

In January 2012, he released his eighth studio album, Evolve or Be Extinct, on his 33rd birthday. [ citation needed ] It peaked at number 86 on the UK Albums Chart. [ citation needed ] A separate promo song, "Hottie", was released on Valentine's Day, featuring Roll Deep member Manga. [ citation needed ] Wiley began releasing grime freestyles over grime beats and releasing them for free via Twitter. [ citation needed ] This collection was released chronologically with the names "Step 1", "Step 2" and furthermore. [ citation needed ] After "Step 10", all of the freestyles were compiled and released as a mixtape titled It's All Fun and Games Till, Vol.1. [36] Alongside working on his "Step" freestyles, various other promo songs were released. This continuous releasing of music saw him receive the attention from major recording label Warner Music Group. [37] [38] Wiley carried on with his "Step" freestyles, releasing Vol. 2 of It's All Fun and Games Till. [ citation needed ]

In June 2012, Wiley released his summer single "Heatwave", featuring Ms D and produced by Rymez to British radio, with the music video released at the end of June via YouTube. [ citation needed ] The song quickly received over 2 million hits. [39] On 5 August 2012, "Heatwave" peaked at number 1 on the UK Singles Chart, making this Wiley's first solo number 1, selling 114,000 copies. [ citation needed ] Shortly after, Wiley confirmed in an interview on the Official Chart Show that he will be releasing a further two singles and a new album in the coming months. [40] His next single, announced in late August, titled "Can You Hear Me" featuring Skepta, JME and Ms D, [41] was released in October 2012. [42] The song was renamed to "Can You Hear Me (Ayayaya)" and premiered on 24 August on DJ Target's BBC Radio 1Xtra show. [43]

Wiley then announced on Twitter that the third single off his next album, Hands in the Air, will feature Chip, Ice-Kid and Tulisa for release on 13 September 2012. [ citation needed ] The song originally featured Emeli Sandé. However, Wiley then tweeted that his next single would feature Rita Ora instead of Tulisa. [44] On 27 September, the name of the album was confirmed to be The Ascent. [45] The tracklist for the album was revealed on 11 October via Instagram, displaying 16 tracks. [46] Also on 11 October, Wiley announced he no longer intended to perform at universities and student unions, citing professional concerns and stating that he "had better things to do". [47] Despite this, Wiley played a club night at SUSU, the University of Southampton Students' Union, on 25 January 2013 as part of the Ministry of Sound Raveout tour. [48] Afterwards, Wiley took to Twitter to express his disappointment with the event, stating, "A proper crowd would [have] loved it tbh and tbf". [49]

On 4 April 2013, Wiley said that he was leaving his record label Warner following a dispute about The Ascent. [ citation needed ] Admitting he was unhappy with their choice of next single from the record, he tweeted: "My label are doing 'Lights On' next but I do not like that so you will not see me in the video." [50]

On 11 October 2013, over 2,000 Wiley fans signed a petition, which was presented to Tower Hamlets' mayor Lutfur Rahman, requesting that a monument to the artist be erected in Bow. [51]

On 19 October 2013, Wiley was awarded "Best Male" at the MOBO Awards' 18th Anniversary. [52]

2014–2015: Snakes & Ladders Edit

Wiley began recording his tenth studio album, Snakes & Ladders, in 2013. The first single from the album, "Flyin", was released in August 2013, and towards the end of that year he leaked a track list for the album. [53] However, he later confirmed his intention in February 2014 to scrap the record and start again as he was unhappy with it, saying it "needs to be epic or there's no point". [54] The first single from the newly recorded album, ""On A Level", was released on 25 September 2014 by Big Dada. [ citation needed ] Wiley was later featured on Ay Yeah So What, and in 2015 released the non-album single ""Chasing the Art"". [55]

2016–Present: Godfather series and Boasty Gang album Edit

In March 2016, Wiley announced that he would be releasing his eleventh studio album, Godfather, and that the album would include 16 songs, 3 of which were to be released as singles. [ citation needed ] The album was released on 13 January 2017. [56] [57] The album entered at number 9 on the UK Albums Chart, becoming Wiley's highest-charting album of his career. [ citation needed ] On 16 February 2017, Wiley won an "Outstanding Contribution to Music" award by NME for Godfather. [ citation needed ]

In late 2017, Wiley announced his next album, Godfather II. The first single, "I Call the Shots" featuring Jme, was released on 3 November 2017, alongside the album's pre-order and track listing. [58] The album was released on 27 April 2018. [59]

In January 2019, Wiley released "Boasty" featuring Idris Elba, Stefflon Don, and Sean Paul. [60] [61] The song was one of the biggest dancehall releases of the year. [62] [63]

Wiley announced Godfather III would be released on 2 November. After delays, the album was finally released on streaming services on 5 June 2020. [64]

On 22 June 2020, Wiley released his 14th studio album, Boasty Gang - The Album. [65] The album features a solo version of his hit single, "Boasty".

In February 2010, Wiley formed a UK supergroup/collective called A-List. This group consists of R&B singers and sisters Shola and Sadie Ama grime artists Wiley, J2K & Brazen all from Roll Deep Mz. Bratt, Wrigley, Margs, Young Kye and Kivanc. [66] Their producer is Bless Beats and their DJ is JJ. [67] [68]

A-List released their first music video on 23 March 2010 called "Midnight Lover", featuring Captin. [69] Despite receiving airplay, the single was never released. The last 20 seconds of the music video is the A-List song "Make My Own Money". [70]

Branded as the "British Nas" by Noisey, [71] Wiley is often cited as the "Godfather of Grime" and the "King of Grime". Other grime artists have cited Wiley as a big influence in their careers. [72] [73] He has been a prolific artist producing several albums and mixtapes for a number of labels. His origins have often been a subject of his work (e.g. "Bow E3").

Wiley has been with a number of record labels. In 2004, Eskibeat Recordings was formed by Wiley to bring young grime artists into the spotlight as well as release his own music under the label. In 2005.

In 2010, Wiley founded A-List Records (A-List Music LTD). On 26 and 27 September 2012, Wiley signed J2K and Ice-Kid to A-List Records. Two weeks after, he had also signed Scratchy Demus, Manga and A. Star (the younger brother of singer Angel) to the record label. Wrigley from Manchester is also signed to the label. Producers include Rymez who is behind the hits "Heatwave" and "Can You Hear Me?" and Flava D.

In 2015, Wiley released an EP on his new record label called Chasing The Art Records. In 2016, Wiley and his manager John Woolf signed a distribution deal with Warner Music Group to release some music by Wiley and future artists that sign to the label.

Wiley is currently signed to Big Dada and Boy Better Know. He has a joint venture distribution deal with Warner Music Group under two brand names, one being Wiley, and the other being Chasing the Arts records, as of 2017.

Following his alleged anti-semitic tweets, on 25 July 2020, Big Dada released a statement saying that "we fully condemn Wiley's comments and royalties from those records will be donated to campaigns that fight anti-Semitism." [74]

Cowie has two daughters. [10] His younger half-brother Cadell is also a grime artist. [75] He supports the English football team Tottenham Hotspur. [76] The name Wiley is derived from the Thundercats cartoon character, 'Wiley Kat', a name he used briefly. [77] [78]

Wiley has been stabbed on several occasions. [7] One of his stab wounds in 2008 resulted in a scar visible on the left hand side of his face. He has stated he was slashed in the face three days before the shoot of "Wearing My Rolex", and the scar on his face ruined his confidence [79] and self-esteem [80] for a while, as he did not want to turn up to interviews or music videos.

Wiley's autobiography, Eskiboy, was published in November 2017. [81]

Following the controversy surrounding Nick Cannon's antisemitic allegations on 14 July 2020, Wiley made a series of posts and videos on social media on 24 July 2020, widely condemned as antisemitic, [82] [8] that described Jewish people as "cowards" and "snakes", [83] alleged significant racism and exploitation from Jewish people towards black people (particularly in business and the music industry), and compared the power of the Jewish community to that of white supremacist group Ku Klux Klan. [84] [85] He also claimed that Jews write laws, own the police, run banks and run the world. [86] His management ceased representing him and Wiley received a temporary ban from Twitter. [87] [88] A police investigation was launched into the posts. [89] The next day, Wiley's manager John Woolf had announced that Wiley had been dropped from A-List Management. [90]

The Campaign Against Antisemitism issued a statement saying: "We consider that Wiley has committed the offence of incitement to racial hatred, which can carry a substantial prison sentence." and said it had reported Wiley to the Metropolitan Police. Wiley's Twitter and Instagram accounts reportedly had a total of 940,000 followers. The CAA called for both his accounts to be removed and wrote to the Honours Forfeiture Committee at the Cabinet Office to ask for his MBE to be revoked. [91] [92]

Home Secretary Priti Patel demanded an explanation from Twitter and Instagram on the length of time it took to remove the posts. [93] On 27 July, a 48-hour boycott of Twitter by some users was started under the hashtag "#NoSafeSpaceForJewHate", protesting the social media site's slow response to the tweets. [94] The following day, Facebook, Inc. deleted his personal accounts on Facebook and Instagram for "repeated violations" of their terms of conduct in his posts towards Jewish celebrities who had criticised him. [8] On 29 July 2020, it was announced that Wiley was permanently suspended from Twitter. [95]

On 29 July 2020, Wiley apologised for generalising about Jewish people and said that he is not a racist. [96]

In August 2020, Wiley was suspended from YouTube [97] and TikTok. [98] In response, he joined social media app Parler, known as a more free speech-oriented social media platform. [99] The following month, the Metropolitan Police dropped their investigation when it was discovered that Wiley was in Rotterdam in the Netherlands when he sent the messages, and thus not under the jurisdiction of British law. [100] The Campaign Against Antisemitism later confirmed that it had launched a private prosecution against Wiley to pursue race-hate charges. [101]

Most Read

“In loving memory of a wonderful person. We will love and miss you always,” one person wrote.

“What a life she lived. Hope you find peace,” said another person.

Other families have publicly shamed relatives upon their deaths.

A Texas family remembered a 74-year-old man — Leslie Ray Charping — as a “model example of bad parenting combined with mental illness and a complete commitment to drinking, drugs, womanizing and being generally offensive.”

They wrote that he lived “29 years longer than expected, and much longer than he deserved.”


Wiley was born on October 18, 1844, in a log farmhouse near Kent, in Jefferson County, Indiana, the son of a farmer. He enrolled in nearby Hanover College in 1863 and studied for about one year until he enlisted with the Union Army in 1864, during the American Civil War. He finished the war as a corporal in Company I of the 137th Indiana Infantry Regiment. [1] He returned to Hanover in 1865, majored in the humanities and was a top graduate (A.B.) in 1867. Wiley earned his M.D. from Indiana Medical College in 1871. He was professor of Greek and Latin at Butler College, Indianapolis, 1868–70. [2]

After earning his medical degree Wiley taught chemistry at the Medical College, where he led Indiana's first laboratory course in chemistry beginning in 1873. At Harvard University, he was awarded a B.S. degree in 1873 after only a few months of intense effort. He then accepted a faculty position in chemistry at Purdue University, which held its first classes in 1874. He was also appointed state chemist of Indiana.

In 1878, Wiley went to Germany where he attended the lectures of August Wilhelm von Hofmann—the celebrated German discoverer of organic tar derivatives like aniline. While there, Wiley was elected to the prestigious German Chemical Society founded by Hofmann. Wiley spent most of his time in the Imperial Food Laboratory in Bismarck working with Eugene Sell, mastering the use of the polariscope and studying sugar chemistry. Upon his return to Purdue, Wiley was asked by the Indiana State Board of Health to analyze the sugars and syrups on sale in the state to detect any adulteration. He spent his last years at Purdue studying sorghum culture and sugar chemistry, working to help develop a strong domestic sugar industry. His first published paper in 1881 discussed the adulteration of sugar with glucose.

Wiley commissioned a medical journalist, Wedderburn, to write out his findings in a manner understandable to public and politicians. Areas of concern included Embalmed Milk (adding formaldehyde to milk) adding copper sulphate to tinned French beans to make them green etc. These problems were mainly associated with getting food to large city populations.

The embalmed beef scandal relating to the troop rations in the American-Cuban war of 1898 finally brought the industry to the public interest.

Wiley was offered the position of Chief Chemist in the United States Department of Agriculture by George Loring, the Commissioner of Agriculture, in 1882. Loring was seeking to replace his chemist with someone who would employ a more objective approach to the study of sorghum, whose potential as a sugar source was far from proven. Wiley accepted the offer after being passed over for the presidency of Purdue, allegedly because he was "too young and too jovial", [3] unorthodox in his religious belief, and also a bachelor. [4] Wiley brought to Washington a practical knowledge of agriculture, a sympathetic approach to the problems of agricultural industry and an untapped talent for public relations. [5]

After assisting Congress in their earliest questions regarding the safety of the chemical preservatives then being employed in foods, Wiley was appropriated $5,000 in 1902 to study the effects of a diet including various preservatives, on human volunteers. These "poison squad" studies drew national attention to the need for a federal food and drug law. These tests were called Hygienic Table Trials. The subjects received $5 a month and free food to be systematically poisoned. 12 volunteers were chosen. One additive was added per trial but he struggled to find non-adulterated products to add the poisons to. First to be tested was borax which tightened old meat which was starting to decompose. The borax was fed to the men in meat and dairy products. Some were given borax and some were not in order to control the study. The volunteers became known as The Poison Squad. [6]

Wiley was originally aiming just to get foods labelled to correctly show their additives. However, he concluded that certain chemicals should be banned. The food industry rose in protest. The proposed Food Bill of 1902 failed to even register a vote, being defeated by lobbyists. He sought the support of female groups, not due to their direct political influence (as they still had none) but due to the domestic pressure which they could exert. The campaign spilled into wider community health and welfare, calling for public (municipal) control of all water supplies and sewer systems. His campaign gained weight when Fanny Farmer joined and paralleled the call for "pure food".

Heinz were one of the first companies to join the push for pure food and changed their recipe for tomato ketchup in 1902 to replace chemical preservatives with vinegar and introducing very hygienic practices into their factories.

In 1905 the Poison Squad was set to work on salicylic acid which was used in multiple products. It was found to cause bleeding of the stomach.

In December 1905 Wiley organised a meeting of more progressive food producers (including Heinz) plus female activists with Theodore Roosevelt to lobby for safe food legislation. A book "The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair revealed inside information from the slaughterhouses of Chicago which caused great consternation. This non-scientific expose of the canned meat industry reminded Roosevelt of his experiences with shoddy meat in Cuba in 1898. In June 1906 this led to the passing of the Meat Inspection Act (controlling slaughterhouses) and the Food and Drug Act (looking at prohibition of additives). Whilst Roosevelt was keen to take sole credit the popular press of the day called this Act Dr Wiley's Law.

The law allowed new chemicals to be added to the list of banned additives. The first one to target was Formaldehyde which in 1907 was found to be highly dangerous despite widespread use.

President Roosevelt brought one of his heroes, Ira Remsen, in to monitor Wiley. This was bound to create conflict as Wiley had raised concerns regarding the president's use of saccharin which had been invented by Remsen. This was intended to curb Wiley who had been having large shipments of food and additives condemned.

Wiley soon became a crusader and coalition builder in support of national food and drug regulation. His work, and that of Alice Lakey, spurred one million American women to write to the White House in support of the Pure Food and Drug Act. [7]

Wiley was nicknamed "Father of the Pure Food and Drugs Act" when it became law in 1906. He wrote two editions of Foods and Their Adulteration (1907 and 1911), which described for an audience of non-specialists the history, preparation and subsequent adulteration of basic foodstuffs. He was a founding father of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, and left a broad and substantial legacy to the American pure food movement as its "crusading chemist".

Wiley targeted Coca Cola in 1909, not because of its use of cocaine which had ceased a few years before, but because of the excessive use of caffeine which was proven to be addictive. The fears were particularly regarding children. This went to trial in 1911 where Coca Cola argued it could be drunk with no ill effects whether addictive or not. The courts decided that Wiley had gone too far and Coca Cola were found not guilty of breaching the Food and Drug Act. President Taft was pressured into firing Wiley but the press supported his continuing.

The enforcement of the federal Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was assigned to the Bureau of Chemistry, instead of the Department of Commerce or the Department of the Interior, which was a tribute to the scientific qualifications that the Bureau of Chemistry brought to its studies of food and drug adulteration, and misbranding. The first food and drug inspectors were hired to complement the work of the laboratory scientists, and an inspection program was launched which revolutionized the country's food supply within the first decade under the new federal law.

Wiley's tenure generated controversy over his administration of the 1906 statute. Concerns over chemical preservatives, which had not been specifically addressed in the law, continued to be problematic. The Secretary of Agriculture appointed a Referee Board of Consulting Scientists, headed by Ira Remsen of Johns Hopkins University, to repeat Wiley's human trials of preservatives. The use of saccharin, bleached flour, caffeine, and benzoate of soda were all important issues which had to be settled by the courts in the early days under the new law.

Under Wiley's leadership, however, the Bureau of Chemistry grew significantly in strength and stature after assuming responsibility for enforcement of the 1906 Act. Between 1906 and 1912, Wiley's staff expanded from 110 to 146. Appropriations, which had been $155,000 in 1906, were $963,780 in 1912. The Bureau moved into its own building and used the healing symbol of Aesculapius's staff, or Ophiuchus. In 1911, his enemies urged his dismissal from the Department of Agriculture over the technicality that an expert in his department had been paid above the legal rate. But later in the year, President William Howard Taft wrote a letter that fully exonerated Wiley. [2]

On March 15, 1912, Wiley resigned his leadership of the Chemistry Bureau because, from nearly the beginning, he had been antagonized in the enforcement of the Pure Food And Drugs Act, and he had seen the fundamental principles of that act either paralyzed or discredited. [8] Taft expressed his regret at Wiley's resignation and Agriculture Secretary James Wilson spoke highly of how "valuable" Wiley had been, and in turn, Wiley thanked Wilson for the "personal kindness and regard shown him." [8]

After his resignation from government work in 1912, Wiley took over the laboratories of Good Housekeeping Magazine, where he continued his work on behalf of the consuming public. His disapprobation of “drugged” products included cola drinks he warned against the caffeine in them vehemently. In a famous action he brought against The Coca-Cola Company in 1911, he contended that it was illegal to use the name Coca-Cola when there was no actual cocaine in the drink, and also that it was illegal for it to contain caffeine as an additive. Perversely, this was as much as to say that the product ought to have contained cocaine and not caffeine. Still, the case was a landmark in developing standards for truth in labeling. The beverage continued to be brewed, even as of late September 2016, with de-cocaine-ized coca leaves and cola nuts.

He remained with Good Housekeeping for 18 years.

He was famed for giving his "seal of approval" to multiple products, a concept which has been widely reused.

7. Bonnie walked with a limp after a car accident. 

On the night of June 10, 1933, Clyde, with Bonnie in the passenger seat, was speeding along the rural roads of north Texas so quickly that he missed a detour sign warning of a bridge under construction. The duo’s Ford V-8 smashed through a barricade at 70 miles per hour and sailed through the air before landing in a dry riverbed. Scalding acid poured out of the smashed car battery and severely burned Bonnie’s right leg, eating away at her flesh down to the bone in some places. As a result of the third-degree burns, Bonnie, like Clyde, walked with a pronounced limp for the rest of her life, and she had such difficulty walking that at times she hopped or needed Clyde to carry her.

What Wiley family records will you find?

There are 241,000 census records available for the last name Wiley. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Wiley census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 14,000 immigration records available for the last name Wiley. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 49,000 military records available for the last name Wiley. For the veterans among your Wiley ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 241,000 census records available for the last name Wiley. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Wiley census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 14,000 immigration records available for the last name Wiley. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 49,000 military records available for the last name Wiley. For the veterans among your Wiley ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

Latest appeal by murderess Wiley denied by N.J. appellate court

Emotional pleas at her sentencing on Jan. 24, 1992, had little effect. Brenda Wiley is serving a 30-years-to-life sentence. Her most recent attempt to have her sentence reduced also failed. (file photo by Karen Servis)

The latest appeal filed by a woman who stabbed her brother and mother to death more than 20 years ago has been denied.

Brenda Wiley, now 37, was convicted in 1992 of fatally stabbing her mother, Bonnie Wiley, 40, and brother, Kevin Wiley, 14. She was 15 at the time of the killings at the family’s Delaware Township home, but was tried as an adult.

She was sentenced to 30 years to life in state prison but has tried several time to overturn her conviction or reduce her sentence. She appealed her conviction and was denied in 1994. The state Supreme Court declined to hear her case.

According to the court record, Wiley filed a petition for post-conviction relief in 1997, claiming her attorney was ineffective. Her petition was denied and the appellate court later affirmed that decision. She filed again in 2005, was denied and her appeal failed. In 2006, Wiley also petitioned the federal district court for a writ of habeas corpus that was denied in 2008.

Most recently, in January 2011, she filed a motion for reconsideration of her sentence. That motion was denied on Feb. 17, 2011. Wiley appealed and today, Feb. 24, the appellate judges released a decision again affirming the lower court ruling.

In her appeal Wiley argued that the judge incorrectly denied her motion for reconsideration of her sentence and the prosecutor incorrectly declined to join in the motion. She also argued that the motion for reconsideration should have been admissible under various rules.

“We find insufficient merit in these arguments to warrant discussion in a written opinion,” the appellate judges wrote.

In taped interviews, Wiley described hitting her brother over the head with a glass soda bottle, then stabbing him in the neck with a kitchen knife. She put his body in a sleeping bag and covered his head with a plastic trash bag.

On the tapes, Wiley said she then prepared to kill her mother, who was outside in a greenhouse at the family’s nursery near Rosemont.

Wiley said she got an iron bar from a kitchen closet. When her mother came in the back door, Wiley told the detective she hit her mother on the head then stabbed her repeatedly.

Afterward she cleaned up the blood with a towel, and showered.

Before the murders Wiley had been grounded over her relationship with an 18-year-old who testified that he would often sneak into the teen’s bedroom to spend the night with her.

According to testimony at the trial, her parents had asked the boy to stop seeing their daughter.

Wiley said she killed her mother because she "kept ragging on me" and "wouldn't let me do anything anymore." She said she killed her brother because he "made fun of me again, as usual." She had planned to kill her father, but he was at work at the time.
Wiley is serving two concurrent life sentences and won't be eligible for parole until at least 2022.

In January 1997 attorneys Henry Price and Matthew Boylan filed a motion claiming that Wiley’s legal counsel at trial, public defender Nicholas DiChiara, was “ineffective.” He filed an appeal several months after the conviction, but died in 1995.

Before Di Chiara died, Price agreed to a request from Wiley’s father, Mark, to take over the appeal. He argued that Wiley was questioned by authorities without having an “unbiased adult” present. Her father was there when his daughter was interrogated by police. Price said he was a victim and therefore biased.

According to court papers, Wiley wasn’t informed she could testify at her “waiver” hearing, which determined that she would be tried as an adult her attorney didn’t try to have the trial moved to another county due to pre-trial publicity and she didn’t have an expert witness testify at her waiver hearing that she suffered from a severe personality disorder.

In 1994, a three-judge panel denied the appeal.

In her second application for post-conviction relief, Wiley argued that new evidence regarding her mental condition at the time of the murders warranted a new waiver hearing or trial. She also said that the life sentences imposed were a violation of the Eighth Amendment and felt that she should have been granted a hearing so she could show that her attorneys were ineffective.

After her application was denied, she filed an appeal arguing that Judge Mahon was wrong because he didn’t order the hearings she wanted.

Wiley is serving her sentences at Edna Mahon Correctional Facility for Women in Union Township.


Born in Chicago and raised in Danville, California, [7] Bassler was intellectually curious from a young age, as she enjoyed solving various logic puzzles. Bassler began her career in science "as a veterinarian’s assistant at the Miami Zoo and later at a local dog and cat clinic." [8] Bassler received a Bachelor of Science in biochemistry from the University of California, Davis. Despite her entry as a major in veterinary sciences, she preferred to focus on genetics and biochemistry. She stated that these subjects allowed her the "gateway to solving biological puzzles." [9] She began to work for UC Davis biochemistry and molecular medicine professor Frederic Troy. Troy's research focuses included bacterial carbohydrates and the relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and cancer. At the time, the cancer project appealed to Bassler more than the research on bacteria, but Troy assigned her to the bacteria research project. Within this project, Bassler characterized an enzyme in E. coli which cleaved sugars from various membrane glycoproteins. Eventually, Bassler admired working with prokaryotes as she stated that "they're the perfect creatures to work on." [9]

Following her undergraduate research, Bassler received a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Johns Hopkins University. [10] She achieved key insights into the mechanism by which bacteria communicate, [11] known as quorum sensing. Her postdoctoral research was conducted at Agouron Institute in genetics for four years. [12] Here, she studied glow-in-the-dark bacteria that cause the oceanic light show. She used her previous knowledge and research to demonstrate that when there were enough cohorts to make effort, bacteria gave off light. In 1994, Bassler joined the Princeton faculty. She is currently the chair of the department of molecular biology and the Squibb Professor in molecular biology. [13] Following her postdoctoral research, the MacArthur Foundation awarded Bassler its fellowship in 2002, which recognized her for her immense contributions to the bacterial lexicon.

Bassler has been conducting research for the past two decades. During her postdoctoral research, Bassler continued working with bacteria. Bassler was originally experimenting with genetic manipulation of bioluminescent genes in bacteria. She began doing research with V. harveyi bacteria and discovered that this bacteria had multiple molecules for quorum sensing. She found that these bacteria use quorum sensing to turn on and off a large number of genes in response to communications from other bacteria. These communications and responses allow bacteria of the same species and of different species to cooperate in a similar manner to multi-cellular organisms. She furthered this research by attempting to figure out how bacteria communicate. A series of experiments led to the discovery that boron binding is used as a co-factor. This element is found in abundance in the oceans where V. harveyi is found. [14]

Currently, she leads a lab in Princeton University that researches in Quorum Sensing: the process of cell-cell communication in Bacteria. [15] Bassler's discoveries are described as "opening new vistas in basic science, but also of practical significance." [16] As antibiotic resistance in human pathogens continues to be a significant challenge in research, Bassler's research contributed new and exciting strategies for treating bacterial disease. Bassler has received numerous awards, but most recently she was awarded the Gruber Genetics Prize. Within Bassler's lab, they focus on intra- and inter-species communication, self versus non-self recognition, information transferring, and population level cooperation. She focuses on five related research topics: How Bacteria Distinguish Self from Other: Ligand-Receptor Interactions, Dynamics: Small RNA Regulation of Quorum Sensing, Biofilms Under Flow and the Public Goods Dilemma, Manipulation of Quorum Sensing on Demand, and Micriblome Quorum Sensing and Inter-Kingdom Communication. [15]

Apart from her research on Bacteria, Bassler has also made major contributions to the science community. Some of her contributions include authoring a section in iBiology's New Online Textbook. This textbook is a free source for students in higher education and self-learners. Bassler's section is a narrative on Quorum Sensing and How Bacteria Communicate. [17] She hopes to make sure that everyone gets opportunities to learn and participate in science.

A Letter to My Grandchildren,

I sent out a joke, which I would think was obvious to all, but it caused a stir among my grandchildren. Perhaps it was a bit crude. It is almost certainly exaggerated. However, it is based on the truth that George Floyd was an addict and thief and in death he can do.

Watch the video: Bonnie Li - Décroche Official Music Video (December 2022).

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