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12 July 1940

12 July 1940


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12 July 1940

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War in the Air

RAF Bomber Command attacks Emden and Kiel

Luftwaffe attacks targets in south west England, Wales and Scotland. Eleven bombers claimed as destroyed



Way Back and Gone

Major League Baseball adds the warning track.

Prior to the 1940’s, baseball stadiums didn’t know what warning tracks were. Yankee Stadium had a running track, that may or may not have been used by fans to exit the stadium, that also acted as a warning track, but it didn’t run up against the wall like the ones of today. A few other stadiums had similar tracks used for running or bicycling, but they weren’t really “warning” tracks. That wasn’t their purpose, though they may have played it incidentally.

Actually, that’s really how it all started. Yankee Stadium had the first “warning” track. Originally, it was supposed to be a quarter-mile track, but it was located, in the outfield, at the start of the incline of the outfield. Therefore, it alerted outfielders to the fact that they were nearing a change in playing surface and that they were getting fairly close to the wall, something the outfielders appreciated. George Selkirk advocated the addition of a six-foot warning track for all stadiums in 1935, but it would be 14 more years until his advice was heeded, on July 12, 1949.

I can’t really find what changed in the teams’ philosophy. I’ve always thought warning tracks were kind of pointless in their current construction. If they’re only 6 to 10 feet wide, then it’s 2 strides and you hit the wall. It’s not a lot of warning. If you want a real warning track, it should probably be closer to 25 or 30 feet where a player can actually notice the change and then react to it. But as they are now, an outfielder can’t slow himself down all that much, and we’ll continue to have more Aaron Rowands and Rick Ankiels. Not that those guys would have slowed down anyway (they probably knew the wall was coming), but I have a feeling that they may not have gone full bore if they knew it was closer.

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One Response to “This Day in Baseball History: July 12th, 1949”

I remember reading once that Brooklyn Dodgers outfielder Pete Reiser was the reason warning tracks were invented. He was an all-out type of player who sustained injuries from crashing into walls.


July 12th, 1940 is a Friday. It is the 194th day of the year, and in the 28th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 3rd quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1940 is a leap year, so there are 366 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 7/12/1940, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 12/7/1940.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


12 July 1940 - History

Southend was often used by the German bombers as a dumping ground for their bomb loads during the war if their primary target was not possible to hit there too many of these incidents to list. There were 1236 Air Raid Warnings.

December 1914: Southend receives the first air raid in the country of the First World War a lone Bomber flew over the town dropping rust rivets. (The first real bombs of the war were dropped on Dover on 14th December 1914)

Sunday 9th & Monday 10th May 1915:   The First Air Raid

Monday 13th August 1917 : Love Lane bombed.

Friday 24th August 1917 : Southend bombed Guilford Road area.

Monday 20th November 1939 : Heinkel floatplanes from Kostenfliegerstaffel 3/906 (coastal reconnaissance squadron) lay magnetic mines in Estuary.

Tuesday 21st November 1939 : Heinkel floatplanes from Kostenfliegerstaffel 3/906 (coastal reconnaissance squadron) return and lay more magnetic mines in Estuary.

Wednesday 22nd November 1939 : Southend Pier attacked by German Bombers 14 magnetic mines recovered, Southend Anchorage Eastern Section out of action for 4 months.

Thursday 23rd November 1939 : Magnetic Mines found off Southend, Mine detonates in mouth of Thames

17th December 1939 : 5 Ships mined in Southend Anchorage (incoming convoy).

Monday 5th February 1940 - Tuesday 6th February 1940: Southend bombed.

Saturday 18th May 1940 : Two German bombers attack Southend scoring direct hits on the Nore Yacht club wrecking it & destroying a Billet near the Airfield killing 10 soldiers.

Tuesday 18th June 1940 : Southend Bombed

Wednesday 19th June 1940 : Shoeburryness bombed 1 killed

Friday 12th July 1940 : Convoy bombed during muster off Southend.

Saturday 13th July 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Friday 19th July 1940 : 15 raids on Estuary.

Saturday 20th July 1940 : RAF Rochford bombed.

Sunday 21st July 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Monday 22nd July 1940 : Shipping bombed in Estuary.

Tuesday 23rd July 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Thursday 25th July 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Friday 26th July 1940 : Estuary bombed.

Sunday 28th July 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Monday 29th July 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Wednesday 31st July 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary Southend bombed RAF Rochford bombed.

Thursday 1st August 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Friday 2nd August 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Tuesday 6th August 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Wednesday 7th August 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary localized raids on Southend area.

Thursday 8th August 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Friday 9th August 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Saturday 10th August 1940 : Southend bombed with most falling on mud near the gasworks.

Sunday 11th August 1940 : Two raids of 100 aircraft attack convoys at muster in Thames Estuary at 11:48am

Monday 12th August 1940 : Estuary convoys bombed 25+ aircraft attack two convoys at anchor at 11:01 HM Trawlers Pyropek & Tamarisk sunk

Tuesday 13th August 1940 : Southend Pier Bombed RAF Rochford bombed.

Friday 16th August 1940 : Raids on Estuary.

Saturday 17th August 1940 : Lone fighter-bomber in nuisance raid over Southend.

Sunday 18th August 1940: Raids on Thames Estuary between 17:40-18.00 54 Bomber Raid on Shoeburyness 4 houses destroyed water-mains signal-box 7 rail tracks also destroyed 3 killed 1 Raider shot down 1 German airman found dead on beach 2nd injured RAF Hurricane shot down in Thames Estuary pilot rescued.

Monday 19th August 1940 : 15 recognizance aircraft make aggressive observations of Southend & the Thames Estuary.

Tuesday 20th August 1940 : Raid of 110 bombers driven off from attack on Southend.

Thursday 22nd August 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary.

Monday 26th August 1940 : RAF Rochford Bombed.

Tuesday 27th August 1940 : Mines laid in Thames Estuary between 04:00-04:40.

Wednesday 28th August 1940: RAF Rochford bombed heavily by 15 He111's at 1300hrs dropping 15tons of High Explosives most landing on the airfield but some do fall around the site 9 raiders were shot down one of the raiding bombers crash lands on the airfield the airfield is forced to close at night and have single aircraft taking off and landing at day-light due to the damage to buildings fires and damage to runways Raid on the Thames Estuary sees 12 out of 100 raiders shot down between 15:50-16:45 Two women are killed in the Victoria area of the town by a stray bomb during a raid on the Thames Estuary by 60 aircraft at 19:00hrs with one being shot down.

Thursday 29th August 1940 : RAF Rochford remains closed due to time delay bombs.

Friday 30th August 1940 : Thames Estuary Bombed.

Saturday 31st August 1940 : RAF Rochford bombed.

August 1940: Claims made by Nazi war mongers that RAF Rochford had been obliterated. By an air raid what was left was a mass of smoking burning ruins" raid by 21 He111's "stick raid" from shore-end of the pier to airfield.

August 1940: Air Battle over Southend during raid sees a Dornier shot down crashing onto Lifstans Way 2 crew parachuted out landing on Thorpe Bay Golf Club & on the mud opposite, 2 were found dead in the wreck & another dead hanging from a tree by his parachute.

Sunday 1st September 1940 : RAF Rochford unserviceable due to craters after raid.

Monday 2nd September 1940 : Thames Estuary raid

Tuesday 3rd September 1940 : Thames Estuary raid

Wednesday 4th September 1940 : Heavy Raids on the Thames Estuary.

Thursday 5th September 1940 : Mines dropped.

Saturday 7th September 1940 : RAF Rochford attacked & left unserviceable for short time.

Tuesday 17th September 1940 : Thames Estuary mined.

Thursday 19th September 1940 : Southend, Southchurch Bombed one German shot down 7 houses destroyed Electric gas water ruptured with gas fire igniting later by HE Bombs during 10:00am raid

Saturday 21st September 1940 : Fighter Sweeps along Estuary & Southend.

Wednesday 25th September 1940 : Ju88 shot down during raid on Southend, Rochford crashing into Estuary. 1940hrs mines also dropped in Estuary

Saturday 28th September 1940 : RAF Rochford bombed Convoys in Estuary attacked

Monday 30th September 1940 : Mines dropped in Thames Estuary.

Autumn 1940: Southend Hospital Dive-bombed.

Friday 4th October 1940 : Thames Estuary mined.

Sunday 6th October 1940 : Southend Thames Estuary raids by solo aircraft.

Monday 7th October 1940 : Thames Estuary mined.

Tuesday 8th October 1940 : Convoy attacked in Thames Estuary.

Thursday 10th October 1940 : HMS Venetia. Destroyer, mined in the Thames Estuary Westcliff bombed Fleetwood Ave area.

Sunday 13th October 1940 : Southend Bombed near Kursaal.

Thursday 17th October 1940 : Thames Estuary mined

Sunday 20th October 1940 : Shoeburry raided.

Thursday 24th October 1940 : Thames Estuary mined

Friday 25th October 1940 : Thames Estuary convoy attacked at 1740hrs help was answered by 4 Spitfires but raiders flew off before interception was made.

Saturday 26th October 1940 : Southend raided Thames Estuary mined.

Sunday 27th October 1940 : Thames Estuary mined

Tuesday 29th October 1940 : Thames Estuary mined

Wednesday 30th October 1940 : 12 mine-laying raids reported in Thames Estuary.

Tuesday 12th November 1940 : Southend Bombed.

Tuesday 19th November 1940 : Southend Bombed.

Wednesday 27th November 1940 : Southend Bombed.

November 1940: Dornier crash lands on airfield.

Sunday 8th December 1940-Sunday 15th December 1941: A large convoy begins to muster in the Estuary, over the week 350 LX Luftkorps bombers bomb the fleet each aircraft carried two mines.

Monday 9th December 1940 : Southend, Westcliff & Leigh Bombed.

Thursday 12th December 1940 - Friday 13th December 1941: During the night of the 12th and the early hours of the 13th no fewer than 93 LX Luftkorps bombers arrive over the Estuary,

Thursday 19th December 1940 : Tanker Mined in Thames Estuary.

Late 1940: Block of flats suffers direct hit.

Tuesday 7th January 1941 : Hit & Run attack on RAF Rochford eight fifty-kilo bombs dropped.

Thursday 9th January 1941 : Southend Bombed.

Monday 13th January 1941 : Estuary Bombed.

Sunday 19th January 1941: Five-hundred incendiaries dropped on Southend, Westcliff, Chalkwell, & Leigh after German bombers are forced to turn back from an attack on London by heavy Ack-Ack fire & increased patrols by night fighters, the town was hit after the Nazi bombers failed to locate the airfield & Estuary Bombed by delayed action bombs & landmines dropped on Thorpe Bay.

Tuesday 4th February 1941 : Southend Bombed, Campbell Road, York Road, Tylers Avenue the London Tavern was badly damaged seven killed & 60ft crater created.

"Tuesday" February 1941: Southend Pier Railway station hit bomb coaches destroyed & damaged.

"Sunday" March 1941: Lone Dive-bomber hits Southend Hospital ward for elderly men.

Saturday 19th April 1941: Para-mine dropped on Vardon Drive 18 bungalows destroyed 175 damaged 500 Incendiaries dropped on Leigh 9 houses destroyed 350 damaged 3 people killed

Sunday 11th May 1941 : RAF Rochford bombed by 18 dive bombers one of the aircraft did not pull out of its dive in time and crashed in to a hanger.

Sunday 18th May 1941 : Two low flying German aircraft hit the Nore Yacht Club, 10 Soldiers killed in Billet after direct hit.

Thursday 5th June 1941 : Naval Tug ASH mined and sunk

Tuesday 1st July 1941 : Luftwaffe sows acoustic mines in the Estuary.

November 1941: Shipping attacked in Estuary three boats damaged.

November 1941: Large Para-mine dropped on Colemans Avenue Prittlewell destroying most of the street 760 other buildings damaged 1 killed 30 injured.

Saturday 20th - Sunday 21st December 1941 : Shoeburryness Landmines dropped.

Friday 9th January 1942 : HMS Vimiera destroyer. Mined in the Thames Estuary.

Monday 11th May 1942 : The largest raid yet by the Me109 fighter Bombers of the JG26 takes place with the main force attacking Southend.

Wednesday 1st July 1942 : Acoustic mines dropped in Thames Estuary.

Monday 10th October 1942 : Southend bombed London Hotel, RA Jones & the Cash Clothing Store all in the High Street hit & a lone Messerschmitt BF109 drops bombs on the sea front area of the town the gunner shooting indiscriminately at civilians killing four men and injuring a further forty-six people.

Monday 19th October 1942 : Lone Bf110 raider sneaks up Estuary and shoots up the High Street with machine gun fire & dropping bombs killing well know Southend residents Architect D H Burns, Accountant Charles Prideaux & Cash Clothing Store manager William Chandier. 3rd March 1943: St Augustine's Church Hall wrecked Prosperous bombs, HE Incendiaries dropped over Leigh Westcliff Southend Thorpe bay Southchurch & Shoebury.

Wednesday 3rd - Thursday 4th March 1943: Raid on Southend Assorted bomb loads

March 1943: RAF Rochford dive-bombed.

Tuesday 9th February 1943 : Lone Doriner D0217 sneaks in under patrolling aircraft during very poor weather and shoots up the airfield before escaping.

Wednesday 3rd March - Thursday 4th March 1943: Southend attacked by Ju88.s and Do217 bombers, AA site at Shoeburyness shoot down a Ju88.

Friday 13th August 1943 : Air Raid on Southend.

October 1943: 1 Killed in Artillery Accident after shell fails to explode at altitude during rail falling and exploding on Hall Cottage.

November 1943: 3 Killed in Artillery accident after shell falls short and hits house during Air Raid

Friday 10th December 1943 : Southend bombed St Vincent's Road, St Bernard's High school & high street.

Sunday 12th December 1943 : 1000kg bombs raid Southend bombed St Bernard's High School, Avenue Road Baptist Church, both badly damaged houses also hit but were empty, three killed, forty six injured.

Friday 4th February 1944: London Road Fleetwood Avenue area of Westcliff bombed 8/70 raiders shot down.

Saturday 29th June 1944 : Southend bombed by 4000 Incendiaries & sticks of Heavy Phosphorus five Germans were shot down.

"One night" March 1944: 3000 Incendiary dropped, & two containers of 1000+ found in Southend Shoeburry area.

"One night" March 1944: War Department offices in Shoeburry bombed 7 buildings damaged by fire 1300 incendiary's collected.

August 1944: V1 kills 8 in Southend.

Thursday 17th October 1944 : Southend hit by Doodlebugs:

October 1944: V2 rocket falls 60 yards west of the pier.

December 1944: V1 Hits Eastwood 200 homes damaged.

Date Unknown: V2 rocket scores direct hit on the pier pavilion passing through the roof then the floor before embedding its self in the mud below with out exploding.


July 12, 1933 – The Dymaxion car

With a name that rings of bully characters in ‘80s coming of age movies, Buckminster Fuller, born in 1895, was quite the opposite. The Massachusetts raised philosopher, engineer and architect lived his life as, as he put it, “an experiment to find what a single individual can contribute to changing the world and benefiting all humanity.” His way of living resulted in a number of inventions, among them the Dymaxion car, a name that combines dynamic, maximum, and tension. The first prototype of the unique vehicle rolled out of a Bridgeport, Connecticut, factory on this day in 1933.

Above: The Dymaxion car, c. 1933.
Top: The Dymaxion. By Starysatyr – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

The car came three years after the completion of his Dymaxion house. Fuller’s house (see what I did there?) was a pre-manufactured, assembled on site home designed around energy efficiency and ease of shipment and assembly. His house was an experiment in doing more with less, as was the car by the same name. In total, three prototypes of what he described to his young daughter as a zoomobile, a vehicle that could hop off the road at will and fly about like a bird. The prototypes were essentially the ground-taxiing phase of a vehicle that may one day be redesigned to fly.

Each featured a rear mounted V8 and front wheel drive system with a single wheel in the rear that controlled steering and could turn 90°. The design resulted in unflattering handling, and Fuller knew it. Without massive improvements to the design, the car would never be available to the public, Fuller stated. When a Dymaxion driver was killed in an accident with another vehicle in 1933, it was found the design of the car was not related to the cause of death.

That car was later repaired and sold to the director of the automotive division of the US Bureau of Standards, only to be destroyed in a garage fire in Washington D.C. The second prototype is the only survivor of the original trio. Today it resides in the Harrah Collection of the National Automobile Museum in Las Vegas. After changing hands many times and covering more than 300,000 miles, the third prototype is presumed to have been scrapped in the 1950s. Fortunately there have been two rather faithful replicas produced.

Though the Dymaxion received interest from numerous automakers, including Henry Ford and Walter Chrysler, Fuller never intended the car to be a commercial venture. Fuller had, somewhat reluctantly, accepted money from a stock trader named Phil Pearson to build the car. His concern about the benefactor’s profit motives and short-sightedness led him to add the now famous “ice cream soda clause” to their contract. It stated Fuller could freely buy only ice cream sodas with all the donated money, if that’s what he chose to do.

2010 replica of 1933 Dymaxion, by Norman Foster. By Sicnag – Dynamaxion 1933 CC BY 2.0,

Following the completion of the first prototype, Fuller used his inheritance to finish the second two. After selling all three he dissolved the Dymaxion Corporation. Fuller later receive patents for the geodesic dome and octet truss, among many others, before passing away on July 1, 1983 at the age of 87.


Those known to have served with

Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment)

during the Second World War 1939-1945.

  • Alger James Alfred.
  • Anderson James. Pte.
  • Austin William.
  • Bage Thomas Philip Fisher. Pte.
  • Baggs Charles Herbert. CSM
  • Baines John William. Pte. (d.6th Apr 1943)
  • Ball George.
  • Barnett Louis Jack.
  • Barty John. Pte. (d.9th May 1940)
  • Barty Thomas Rooney. Pte (d.23 October 1942)
  • Beattie James Francis. Pte.
  • Blacker Leslie. Cpl. (d.18th Mar 1943)
  • Blackmore Frank. Pte. (d.7th April 1943 )
  • Blake George Albert. Pte. (d.25th June 1944)
  • Bowden William Leonard.
  • Brace Frederick James.
  • Braysford S. Fus.
  • Brett Thomas Patrick. Cpl.
  • Bricknal Dan. Pte.
  • Brown Leonard.
  • Brydon George Young. Pte.
  • Brydon George Young. Pte.
  • Bullock John Joseph Lowdon . Cpl.
  • Cairns Walter. L/Cpl. (d.20th May 1940)
  • Cameron James McGarry. Sgt.Maj.
  • Cameron James MacCowan.
  • Clark James Gavin.
  • Clark Jimmy.
  • Cohen Isadore .
  • Colville David. Pte. (d.26th Jul 1943)
  • Cooper Robert.
  • Corden JC.
  • Crabb John Wilson. Pte.
  • Crofts Jim.
  • Cruickshank Robert .
  • Cunliffe Jack. Pte. (d.9th July 1944)
  • Dalby Harry.
  • Dalby Harry. Pte.
  • Dalby Harry.
  • Davidson David.
  • Davies Evan. (d.11th July 1944)
  • Dean James Henry. Pte.
  • Denholm David. L/Cpl. (d.8th May 1944)
  • Devlin James McCard.
  • Draine James. L/Cpl. (d.23rd March 1945)
  • Duncan Robert Fraser. Pte (d.31st October 1944)
  • Duncan Samuel Campbell. Pte. (d.28th October 1942)
  • Durie John Kilgour. Pte.
  • Dutton Thomas Charles. Pte.
  • Farmer Kenneth John. L/Cpl. (d.25th Oct 1944)
  • Fenton David. Sgt.
  • Ferguson John. (d.25th July 1944)
  • Forbes Edward. Pte.
  • Forrester Andrew Paterson. Pte.
  • Furlong William. Pte. (d.20th May 1940)
  • Gardner Douglas Henry. Cpl.
  • Geraghty Hugh Michael. Sergeant
  • Gibson Norman. Pte.
  • Gillen Louis. Pte.
  • Gillen Louis. Pte.
  • Graham DHJ.
  • Grant Ernest Gavin. Pte.
  • Gray Alexander. Pte. (d.7th Apr 1943)
  • Gray John. W/O
  • Greenwood Harry. Pte. (d.25th June 1944)
  • Hamilton Robert Brewster. Pte.
  • Hands William James. Sgt.
  • Handy B.
  • Harrison Norman.
  • Healey Dennis. Pte. (d.24th October 1942)
  • Henderson Peter. Pte.
  • Hill Andrew Steele. Pte.
  • Hoey James. Pte.
  • Hopper James Henry. Pte. (d.8th August 1944)
  • Hulls Thomas Herbert. Cpl.
  • Hunter Henry. L/Cpl. (d.11th June 1940)
  • Hutchison Andrew Dalgetty. Pte.
  • Hyams Sydney. Pte. (d.23th October 1944)
  • Inglis James Thomas. Pte.
  • Innes Douglas Lloyd.
  • Jalsevac John.
  • Jamfrey John Lumsden. L/Cpl. (d.25th May 1945)
  • Jennings Albert. Gnr.
  • Johnson David H.. Pte.
  • Keen Augustus. Sgt.
  • Kelly Joseph. Pte.
  • Kinross John. Pte.
  • Kirk Robert Gourdie. Pte.
  • Kirkwood J.
  • Laing Newton Phillips. Pte.
  • Laker RE.
  • Lee George. Sgt.
  • Lynch James Patrick .
  • Macfarlane Duncan. L/Cpl. (d.13th Oct 1943)
  • Macready Donald Henderson. Pte (d.23rd April 1945)
  • Mallins BA.
  • Manto Herman Carl.
  • Marr Hendry. WO2.
  • Marriott William H.. L/Cpl.
  • McArthur William Duncan.
  • McArthur William Duncan.
  • McGurk Charles. Pte. (d.10th to 13th June 1940)
  • McIntyre John Stirling. Pte. (d.31st Jan 1941)
  • McKenzie Donald. Pte.
  • McLuskie John Jamie. Pte.
  • McMurdo James. Pte. (d.12th June 1944)
  • McNamee Donald. Pte.
  • McNulty James.
  • Melvin Martin. Pte. (d.7th April 1943)
  • Mitchell T..
  • Mooney John. Pte. (d.16th Apr 1945)
  • Moore Peter Havers.
  • Morrell Bernard Dolan. Pte.
  • Mudie Albert Crawford. L/Cpl. (d.13th May 1940 )
  • Murphy Sean John. Gnr.
  • Naylor Gilbert Richard. Pte.
  • New William Henry . Pte. (d.19th July 1943)
  • Nichol Thomas Henry. Pte.
  • Nicol RDW.
  • Nicolle Roy John. Pte.
  • Nisbet Andrew. Pte.
  • Palmer Benjamin R. Sgt.
  • Parker Richard. Pte. (d.13th Dec 1942)
  • Paterson Alexander Barbour. Pte. (d.16th October 1942)
  • Peddie Williamson.
  • Pickup Lewellyn Beaumont. Pte. (d.22nd May 1940)
  • Pollard John Edward. Pte. (d.3rd Aug 1944)
  • Powrie Ernest Peter. Pte. (d.26th March 1945)
  • Pratt John Leslie. Pte (d.3rd July 1944)
  • Randall Harry. Sgt.
  • Rees William Llewellyn. Pte
  • Reid Robert Wark. Pte.
  • Reilly John J.. L/Cpl. (d.21st February 1944)
  • Robinson Douglas Graham. Pte. (d.8th Aug 1944)
  • Rodgers Francis. Pte.
  • Ross Richard. Pte
  • Routledge Phillip Cameron. WO.
  • Rowan-Hamilton Angus David. Lt-Col.
  • Ryan Gerald J.. Cpl. (d.22nd Jul 1944)
  • Saunders John Thomas. L/Cpl. (d.21st July 1944)
  • Savelli Vilmo. Pte. (d.26th October 1944)
  • Savill Arthur James Stanley .
  • Sellar WW.
  • Sellars George Henry. Pte.
  • Shann Cliff. Lt.
  • Sharp James Low. Cpl.
  • Sloan John. Pte. (d.22nd-23rd October 1942)
  • Smith Thomas Parker. Pte.
  • Smith WJ.
  • Spragg Donald Leonard. Pte.
  • Standage Walter Flanders. Pte.
  • Stanners William Horace James. Cpl
  • Stewart William Sangster. Lt.
  • Stockton Thomas. Pte.
  • Sweeney J.
  • Symons John. Pte. (d.19th March 1944)
  • Taylor Leonard James. RSM.
  • Thomas Wilfred.
  • Thompson Andrew Mitchell. Pte.
  • Thompson W. Robert. Pte.
  • Todd Ian Menzies. Lt.
  • Todd Ian Menzies. Lt.
  • Urquhart George Blair. Capt.(Chapl).
  • Waddell George. Pte. (d.27th Mar 1945 )
  • Wakefield Philip Clive. Private (d.13 Nov 1944)
  • Walker David. Pte.
  • Walton William.
  • Watson David. Sgt.
  • Watson James. Pte. (d.9th Apr 1945)
  • White David. Pte.
  • White Denis. Cpl. (d.19th Oct 1944)
  • White L.
  • Whitwell .
  • Whyte Charles.
  • Wigg Frederick. Pte. (d.15th July 1944)
  • Wilson Thomas. Sgt.

The names on this list have been submitted by relatives, friends, neighbours and others who wish to remember them, if you have any names to add or any recollections or photos of those listed, please Add a Name to this List


This Day in History: July 12

This Day in History: July 12

Take a look at all of the important historical events that took place on July 12.

On this day, July 12 …

1984: Democratic presidential candidate Walter Mondale announces he has chosen U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running mate, making Ferraro the first woman to run for vice president on a major-party ticket.

  • 1817: Author and poet Henry David Thoreau is born in Concord, Mass.
  • 1862: President Abraham Lincoln signs a bill authorizing the Army Medal of Honor.
  • 1909: The House of Representatives joins the Senate in passing the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, allowing for a federal income tax, and submits it to the states. (It would be declared ratified in February 1913.)

  • 1960:The Etch A Sketch Magic Screen drawing toy, invented by French electrician Andre Cassagnes, is first produced by the Ohio Art Co.
  • 1962: The Rolling Stones play their first-ever gig at the Marquee in London.
  • 1977: President Jimmy Carter defends Supreme Court limits on government payments for poor women's abortions, saying, "There are many things in life that are not fair."

  • 2003: The USS Ronald Reagan, the first carrier named for a living president, is commissioned in Norfolk, Va.

FILE -- April 26, 2006: Tony Snow speaks to reporters after President George W. Bush announced that Snow would serve as the new White House press secretary. (REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque)


Henry David Thoreau

Writer, philosopher, and naturalist Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817, in Concord, Massachusetts. Associated with the Concord-based literary movement called New England Transcendentalism, he embraced the Transcendentalist belief in the universality of creation and the primacy of personal insight and experience. Thoreau’s advocacy of simple, principled living remains compelling, while his writings on the relationship between people and the environment helped define the nature essay.

The doctrines of despair, of spiritual or political tyranny or servitude, were never taught by such as shared the serenity of nature.

Henry David Thoreau. Excursions. (Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1863), 39. The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920. Rare Book & Special Collections Division

After graduating from Harvard in 1837, Thoreau held a series of odd jobs. Encouraged by Concord neighbor and friend Ralph Waldo Emerson, he started publishing essays, poems, and reviews in the transcendentalist magazine The Dial. His essay “Natural History of Massachusetts” (1842) revealed his talent for writing about nature.

From 1845 to 1847, Thoreau lived in a cabin on the edge of Walden Pond, a small glacial lake near Concord. Guided by the maxim “Simplify, simplify,” he strictly limited his expenditures, his possessions, and his contact with others. His goal: “To live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach.”

[Thoreau’s cove, Lake Walden, Concord, Mass.]. between 1900 and 1910. Detroit Publishing Company. Prints & Photographs Division

I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner, and reduce it to its lowest terms, and, if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it, and publish its meanness to the world or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it…

Henry David Thoreau, “Where I Lived, and What I Lived for External ,” from Walden or, Life in the Woods. External . p. 106. Chicago, New York: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1917 (originally published 1854)

Walden or, Life in the Woods External chronicles his experiment in self-sufficiency. In a series of loosely-connected essays, Thoreau takes American individualism to new heights, while offering a biting critique of society’s increasingly materialistic value system.

During his time at Walden, Thoreau spent a night in jail for refusing to pay his poll tax. He withheld the tax to protest the existence of slavery and what he saw as an imperialistic war with Mexico. Released after a relative paid the tax, he wrote “Civil Disobedience External ” (originally published as “Resistance to Civil Government”) to explain why private conscience can constitute a higher law than civil authority. “Under a government which imprisons any unjustly,” he argued, “the true place for a just man is also a prison.” Thoreau continued to be a vocal and active opponent of slavery. In addition to aiding runaway slaves, in 1859 he staunchly and publicly defended abolitionist John Brown.

Racquet River—”Adirondacks”. New York: Published by Currier & Ives, ca. 1840-1880. Popular Graphic Arts. Prints & Photographs Division

When his writing failed to win money or acclaim, he became a surveyor to support himself. As a result, Thoreau’s later years increasingly were spent outdoors, observing and writing about nature. His seminal essay, “The Succession of Forest Trees,” describes the vital ecology of the woodlands, highlighting the role of birds and animals in seed dispersal. Republished posthumously in Excursions, Thoreau’s essay makes the forward-looking suggestion that forest management systems mirror existing woodland ecology.

“If a man does not keep pace with his companions,” Thoreau reminds us, “perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away.” Considered something of a failure by the small town merchants and farmers of Concord, Thoreau died at home on May 6, 1862. His place in American letters is secure, however, as many continue to find inspiration in his work and his example.


Thursday Photo Caption Contest: July 12

So hot that a plane got stuck in “soft spot” in the asphalt of the runway at Reagan National Airport just across the river in Alexandria, Virginia.

So hot that our brains melted and we could not choose a winner from last week’s caption contest. So we turned to the freshest, youngest brain we could find in the office. Our new intern, YouTube whiz and future Pieces of History blogger Nikita Buley, agreed to pick the winner.

Congratulations to Tom! Check your email for a discount code for 15% off in our eStore.

So were these men hauling a plane off an overheated runway? Well, although it looks hot, the answer is no. Instead, it turns out that life does imitate art. These men are the actual crew of the place, and they are imitating the images of themselves on the plane!

According to the original caption: “B-29 Men bombed Tokyo. The crew of ‘Waddy’s Wagon,’ fifth B-29 to take off on the initial Tokyo mission from Saipan, and first to land after bombing the target. Crew members, posing here to duplicate their caricatures on the plane, are : Plane C. O., Capt. Walter R. ‘Waddy’ Young, Ponca City, Okla., former All-American end Lt. Jack H. Vetters, Corpus Christi, Texas, pilot Lt. John F. Ellis, Moberly, Mo., bombardier Lt. Paul R. Garrison, Lancaster, Pa., navigator Sgt. George E. Avon, Syracuse, N.Y., radio operator Lt. Bernard S. Black, Woodhave, L.I., Flight Engineer Sgt. Kenneth M. Mansie of Randolph, Me., Tech., and gunners – Sgts. Lawrence L. Lee, Max, N.D. Wilbur J. Chapman, Panhandle, Texas Corbett L. Carnegie, Grindstone Island, N.Y.: and Joseph J. Gatto, Falconer, N.Y.”

Everybody has their shirts on in today’s photo, but it looks like someone is still about to lose their cool. Put your best caption in the comments below!


1948 Democratic Convention

The Democrats came to Philadelphia on July 12, seventeen days after the Republicans, meeting in the same city, had nominated a dream ticket of two hugely popular governors: Thomas E. Dewey of New York for president and Earl Warren of California for vice president.

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The Democrats' man, President Harry S. Truman, had labored for more than three years in the enormous shadow of Franklin D. Roosevelt. In their hearts, all but the most optimistic delegates thought, as Clare Boothe Luce had told the Republican gathering, that the president was a "gone goose."

Truman, a failed haberdasher turned politician, had the appearance of a meek bookkeeper. In fact, he was feisty and prone to occasional angry outbursts. His upper-South twang did not resonate with much of the country. His many detractors wrote him off as a "little man" who had been unable to deal with difficult post-World War II issues—inflation and consumer shortages, civil rights for African-Americans and a developing cold war with the Soviet Union.

In the off-year elections of 1946, Republicans had gained firm control of both houses of Congress for the first time since 1928. Few Democrats believed Truman could lead them to victory in the presidential race. A large group of cold war liberals—many of them organized in the new Americans for Democratic Action (ADA)—joined with other Democratic leaders in an attempt to draft America's greatest living hero, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, as their candidate. The general seemed momentarily persuadable, then quickly backed away.

It was no coincidence that both parties met in Philadelphia. The city was at the center point of the Boston to Richmond coaxial cable, then the main carrier of live television in the United States. By 1948, as many as ten million people from Boston to Richmond could watch the tumultuous process by which the major parties selected their candidates. They could also see star journalists whom they had known only as voices, most notably the CBS team of Edward R. Murrow, Quincy Howe and Douglas Edwards.

The parties met amid miles of media cable and wiring in Convention Hall, an imposing Art Deco arena decorated with exterior friezes that celebrated American values and the history of humankind. The structure could accommodate 12,000 people. Packed to the rafters on a steamy July day, heated by blazing television lights and possessing no effective cooling system, the great hall was like an enormous sauna.

The Democrats' keynote speaker was Senator Alben Barkley of Kentucky. A presence on Capitol Hill since 1912 and the Democratic leader in the upper house for more than a decade, Barkley was much liked throughout the party and a master orator in the grand tradition. His speech scourged the Republican-controlled Congress, quoted patron saints of the Democratic Party from Jefferson to FDR, expropriated Lincoln along the way and cited biblical text from the Book of Revelation. The delegates cheered themselves hoarse, and an ensuing demonstration waved "Barkley for Vice President" placards.

Truman, watching the proceedings on TV in Washington, was not amused. He considered "old man Barkley" (at age 70, six and a half years his senior) to be little more than a hail fellow with whom one sipped bourbon and swapped tall tales. The president wanted a young, dynamic and aggressively liberal running mate. He already had offered the slot to Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, who declined. With no backup, Truman turned to Barkley: "Why didn't you tell me you wanted to run, Alben? That's all you had to do." Barkley accepted.

By then, the attention of the delegates had shifted to a platform fight that marked the full emergence of the modern Democratic Party. African-Americans were an important Democratic constituency, but so were white Southerners. Previous party platforms had never gotten beyond bland generalizations about equal rights for all. Truman was prepared to accept another such document, but liberals, led by the ADA, wanted to commit the party to four specific points in the president's own civil rights program: abolition of state poll taxes in federal elections, an anti-lynching law, a permanent fair employment practices committee and desegregation of the armed forces.

Hubert Humphrey, mayor of Minneapolis and a candidate for Senate, delivered the liberal argument in an intensely emotional speech: "The time is now arrived in America for the Democratic Party to get out of the shadow of states' rights and walk forthrightly into the bright sunshine of human rights." On July 14, the last day of the convention, the liberals won a close vote. The entire Mississippi delegation and half the Alabama contingent walked out of the convention. The rest of the South would back Senator Richard B. Russell of Georgia as a protest candidate against Truman for the presidential nomination.

Nearly two weeks after the convention, the president issued executive orders mandating equal opportunity in the armed forces and in the federal civil service. Outraged segregationists moved ahead with the formation of a States' Rights ("Dixiecrat") Party with Gov. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina as its presidential candidate. The States' Rights Party avoided outright race baiting, but everyone understood that it was motivated by more than abstract constitutional principles.

Truman was slated to deliver his acceptance speech at 10 p.m. on July 14 but arrived to find the gathering hopelessly behind schedule. As he waited, nominating speeches and roll calls droned on and on. Finally, at 2 a.m. he stepped up to the podium. Most of America was sound asleep.

He wore a white linen suit and dark tie, ideal for the stifling hall and the rudimentary capabilities of 1948 television. His speech sounded almost spit into the ether at the opposition. "Senator Barkley and I will win this election and make these Republicans like it—don't you forget that!" He announced he would call Congress back into session on July 26—Turnip Day to Missouri farmers—and dare it to pass all the liberal-sounding legislation endorsed in the Republican platform. "The battle lines of 1948 are the same as they were in 1932," he declared, "when the nation lay prostrate and helpless as a result of Republican misrule and inaction." New York Times radio and TV critic Jack Gould judged it perhaps the best performance of Truman's presidency: "He was relaxed and supremely confident, swaying on the balls of his feet with almost a methodical rhythm."

The delegates loved it. Truman's tireless campaigning that fall culminated in a feel-good victory of a little guy over an organization man. It especially seemed to revitalize the liberals, for whom the platform fight in Philadelphia became a legendary turning point. "We tied civil rights to the masthead of the Democratic Party forever," remarked ADA activist Joseph Rauh 40 years later.

In truth, the ramifications of that victory would require two decades to play out. In the meantime, Thurmond, winning four states and 39 electoral votes, had fired a telling shot across the Democrats' bow. Dixiecrat insurgents in Congress returned to their seats in 1949 with no penalty from their Democratic colleagues. Party leaders, North and South, understood the danger of a spreading revolt. Truman would not backtrack on his commitment to civil rights, but neither would Congress give him the civil rights legislation he requested.

His successors as party leader would show little disposition to push civil rights until the mass protests led by Martin Luther King Jr. forced the hands of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Only then would the ultimate threat of the Dixiecrats be realized—the movement of the white South into the Republican Party.

Alonzo L. Hamby, a professor of history at Ohio University, wrote Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman.


Watch the video: German Army Parade 1938. British Pathé (December 2022).

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